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masses with a coarse or fine granular texture; also in botryoidal or globular (sphaerosiderite) and oolitic forms. When compact and mixed with much clay and sand it constitutes the well-known clay ironstone. Chalybite is usually yellowish-grey or brown in colour; it is translucent and has a vitreous lustre. Hardness 3½; sp. gr. 3.8. The double refraction (ωε = 0.241) is stronger than that of calcite. When pure it contains 48.2% of iron, but this is often partly replaced isomorphously by manganese, magnesium or calcium: the varieties known as oligon-spar or oligonite, sideroplesite and siderodote contain these elements respectively in large amount. These varieties form a passage to ankerite (q.v.) and mesitite, and all are referred to loosely as brown-spar.

EB1911 Chalybite.jpg

Crystal of Chalybite

Chalybite is a common gangue mineral in metalliferous veins, and well-crystallized specimens are found with ores of copper, lead, tin, &c., in Cornwall, the Harz, Saxony and many other places. It also occurs alone as large masses in veins and beds in rocks of various kinds. The clay ironstone so extensively worked as an ore of iron occurs as nodules and beds in the Coal Measures of England and the United States, and the oolitic iron ore of the Cleveland district in Yorkshire forms beds in the Lias. The mineral is occasionally found as concretionary masses (sphaerosiderite) in cavities in basic igneous rocks such as dolerite.  (L. J. S.) 

CHAMBA, a native state of India, within the Punjab, amid the Himalayas, and lying on the southern border of Kashmir. It has an area of 3216 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 127,834. The sanatorium of Dalhousie, though within the state, is attached to the district of Gurdaspur. Chamba is entirely mountainous; in the east and north, and in the centre, are snowy ranges. The valleys in the west and south are fertile. The chief rivers are the Chandra and Ravi. The country is much in favour with sportsmen. The principal crops are rice, maize and millet. Mineral ores of various kinds are known, but unworked. Trade is chiefly in forest produce. The capital of the state is Chamba (pop. 6000), situated above the gorge of the Ravi. External communications are entirely by road. The state was founded in the 6th century, and, though sometimes nominally subject to Kashmir and afterwards tributary to the Mogul empire, always practically maintained its independence. Its chronicles are preserved in a series of inscriptions, mostly engraved on copper. It first came under British influence in 1846, when it was declared independent of Kashmir. The line of the rajas of Chamba was founded in the 6th century A.D. by Marut, of an ancient family of Rajputs. In 1904 Bhuri Singh, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., an enlightened and capable ruler, succeeded.

CHAMBAL, a river of India, one of the principal tributaries of the Jumna. Rising amid the summits of the Vindhya mountains in Malwa, it flows north, and after being joined by the Chambla and Sipra, passes through the gorges of the Mokandarra hills. After receiving the waters of the Kali-Sind, Parbati and Banas, its principal confluents, the Chambal becomes a great river, enters the British district of Etawah, and joins the Jumna 40 m. below Etawah town, its total length being 650 m.

CHAMBERLAIN, JOSEPH (1836–), British statesman, third son of Joseph Chamberlain, master of the Cordwainers’ Company, was born at Camberwell Grove, London, on the 8th of July 1836. His father was a well-to-do man of business, a Unitarian in religion and a Liberal in politics. Young Chamberlain was educated at Canonbury from 1845 to 1850, and at University College school, London, from 1850 to 1852. After two years in his father’s office in London, he was sent to Birmingham to join his cousin Joseph Nettlefold in a screw business in which his father had an interest; and by degrees, largely owing to his own intelligent management, this business became very successful. Nettlefold & Chamberlain employed new methods of attracting customers, and judiciously amalgamated rival firms with their own so as to reduce competition, with the result that in 1874, after twenty-two years of commercial life, Mr Chamberlain was able to retire with an ample fortune. Meanwhile he had in 1861 married his first wife, Miss Harriet Kenrick (she died in 1863), and had gradually come to take an increasingly important part in the municipal and political life of Birmingham. He was a constant speaker at the Birmingham and Edgbaston Debating Society; and when in 1868 the Birmingham Liberal Association was reorganized, he became one of its leading members. In 1869 he was elected chairman of the executive council of the new National Education League, the outcome of Mr George Dixon’s movement for promoting the education of the children of the lower classes by paying their school fees, and agitating for more accommodation and a better national system. In the same year he was elected a member of the town council, and married his second wife—a cousin of his first—Miss Florence Kenrick (d. 1875).

In 1870 he was elected a member of the first school board for Birmingham; and for the next six years, and especially after 1873, when he became leader of a majority and chairman, he actively championed the Nonconformist opposition to denominationalism. He was then regarded as a Republican—the term signifying rather that he held advanced Radical opinions, which were construed by average men in the light of the current political developments in France, than that he really favoured Republican institutions. His programme was “free Church, free land, free schools, free labour.” At the general election of 1874 he stood as a parliamentary candidate for Sheffield, but without success. Between 1869 and 1873 he was a prominent advocate in the Birmingham town council of the gospel of municipal reform preached by Mr Dawson, Dr Dale and Mr Bunce (of the Birmingham Post); and in 1873 his party obtained a majority, and he was elected mayor, an office he retained until June 1876. As mayor he had to receive the prince and princess of Wales on their visit in June 1874, an occasion which excited some curiosity because of his reputation as a Republican; but those who looked for an exhibition of bad taste were disappointed, and the behaviour of the Radical mayor satisfied the requirements alike of The Times and of Punch.

The period of his mayoralty was one of historic importance in the growth of modern Birmingham. New municipal buildings were erected, Highgate Park was opened as a place of recreation, the free library and art gallery were developed. But the great work carried through by Mr Chamberlain for Birmingham was the municipalization of the supply of gas and water, and the improvement scheme by which slums were cleared away and forty acres laid out in new streets and open spaces. The prosperity of modern Birmingham dates from 1875 and 1876, when these admirably administered reforms were initiated, and by his share in them Mr Chamberlain became not only one of its most popular citizens but also a man of mark outside. An orator of a business-like, straightforward type, cool and hard-hitting, his spare figure, incisive features and single eye-glass soon made him a favourite subject for the caricaturist; and in later life his aggressive personality, and the peculiarly irritating effect it had on his opponents, made his actions and speeches the object of more controversy than was the lot of any other politician of his time. His hobby for orchid-growing at his house “Highbury” near Birmingham also became famous. In private life his loyalty to his friends, and his “genius for friendship” (as John Morley said) made a curious contrast to his capacity for arousing the bitterest political hostility. It may be added here that the interest taken by him in Birmingham remained undiminished during his life, and he was largely instrumental in starting the Birmingham University (1900), of which he became chancellor. His connexion with Birmingham University was indeed peculiarly appropriate to his character as a man of business; but in spite of his representing a departure among men of the front rank in politics from the “Eton and Oxford” type, his general culture sometimes surprised those who did not know him. In later life Oxford and Cambridge gave him their doctors’ degrees; and in 1897 he was made lord rector of Glasgow