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residences along the river-bank. The authorities of Chandernagore are subject to the jurisdiction of the governor-general of Pondicherry, to whom is confided the general government of all the French possessions in India.

CHANDLER, HENRY WILLIAM (1828–1889), English scholar, was born in London on the 31st of January 1828. In 1848 he entered Pembroke College, Oxford, where he was elected fellow in 1853. In 1867 he succeeded H. L. Mansel as Waynflete professor of moral and metaphysical philosophy, and in 1884 was appointed curator of the Bodleian library. He died by his own hand in Oxford on the 16th of May 1889. He was chiefly known as an Aristotelian scholar, and his knowledge of the Greek commentators on Aristotle was profound. He collected a vast amount of material for an edition of the fragments of his favourite author, but on the appearance of Valentine Rose’s work in 1886 he abandoned the idea. Two works on the bibliography of Aristotle, A Catalogue of Editions of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics and of Works illustrative of them printed in the 15th century (1868), and A Chronological Index to Editions of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, and of Works illustrative of them from the Origin of Printing to 1799 (1878), are of great value. Chandler’s collection of works on Aristotelian literature is now in the library of Pembroke College. His Practical Introduction to Greek Accentuation (1862, ed. min. 1877) is the standard work in English.

CHANDLER, RICHARD (1738–1810), British antiquary, was born in 1738 at Elson in Hampshire, and educated at Winchester and at Queen’s and Magdalen Colleges, Oxford. His first work consisted of fragments from the minor Greek poets, with notes (Elegiaca Graeca, 1759); and in 1763 he published a fine edition of the Arundelian marbles, Marmora Oxoniensia, with a Latin translation, and a number of suggestions for supplying the lacunae. He was sent by the Dilettanti Society with Nicholas Revett, an architect, and Pars, a painter, to explore the antiquities of Ionia and Greece (1763–1766); and the result of their work was the two magnificent folios of Ionian antiquities published in 1769. He subsequently held several church preferments, including the rectory of Tylehurst, in Berkshire, where he died on the 9th of February 1810. Other works by Chandler were Inscriptiones Antiquae pleraeque nondum editae (Oxford, 1774); Travels in Asia Minor (1775); Travels in Greece (1776); History of Ilium (1803), in which he asserted the accuracy of Homer’s geography. His Life of Bishop Waynflete, lord high chancellor to Henry VI., appeared in 1811.

A complete edition (with notes by Revett) of the Travels in Asia Minor and Greece was published by R. Churton (Oxford, 1825), with an “Account of the Author.”

CHANDLER, SAMUEL (1693–1766), English Nonconformist divine, was born in 1693 at Hungerford, in Berkshire, where his father was a minister. He was sent to school at Gloucester, where he began a lifelong friendship with Bishop Butler and Archbishop Secker; and he afterwards studied at Leiden. His talents and learning were such that he was elected fellow of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies, and was made D.D. of Edinburgh and Glasgow. He also received offers of high preferment in the Church of England. These he refused, remaining to the end of his life in the position of a Presbyterian minister. He was moderately Calvinistic in his views and leaned towards Arianism. He took a leading part in the deist controversies of the time, and discussed with some of the bishops the possibility of an act of comprehension. From 1716 to 1726 he preached at Peckham, and for forty years he was pastor of a meeting-house in Old Jewry. During two or three years, having fallen into pecuniary distress through the failure of the South Sea scheme, he kept a book-shop in the Poultry. On the death of George II. in 1760 Chandler published a sermon in which he compared that king to King David. This view was attacked in a pamphlet entitled The History of the Man after God’s own Heart, in which the author complained of the parallel as an insult to the late king, and, following Pierre Bayle, exhibited King David as an example of perfidy, lust and cruelty. Chandler condescended to reply first in a review of the tract (1762) and then in A Critical History of the Life of David, which is perhaps the best of his productions. This work was just completed when he died, on the 8th of May 1766. He left 4 vols. of sermons (1768), and a paraphrase of the Epistles to the Galatians and Ephesians (1777), several works on the evidences of Christianity, and various pamphlets against Roman Catholicism.

CHANDLER, ZACHARIAH (1813–1879), American politician, was born at Bedford, New Hampshire, on the 10th of December 1813. In 1833 he removed to Detroit, Michigan, where he became a prosperous dry-goods merchant. He took a prominent part as a Whig in politics (serving as mayor in 1851), and, impelled by his strong anti-slavery views, actively furthered the work of the “Underground Railroad,” of which Detroit was one of the principal “transfer” points. He was one of the organizers in Michigan of the Republican party, and in 1857 succeeded Lewis Cass in the United States Senate, serving until 1875, and at once taking his stand with the most radical opponents of slavery extension. When the Civil War became inevitable he endeavoured to impress upon the North the necessity of taking extraordinary measures for the preservation of the Union. After the fall of Fort Sumter he advocated the enlistment of 500,000 instead of 75,000 men for a long instead of a short term, and the vigorous enforcement of confiscation measures. In July 1862 he made a bitter attack in the Senate on General George B. McClellan, charging him with incompetency and lack of “nerve.” Throughout the war he allied himself with the most radical of the Republican faction in opposition to President Lincoln’s policy, and subsequently became one of the bitterest opponents of President Johnson’s plan of reconstruction. From October 1875 to March 1877 he was secretary of the interior in the cabinet of President Grant, succeeding Columbus Delano (1809–1896). In 1876, as chairman of the national republican committee, he managed the campaign of Hayes against Tilden. In February 1879 he was re-elected to the Senate to succeed Isaac P. Christiancy (1812–1890), and soon afterwards, in a speech concerning Mexican War pensions, bitterly denounced Jefferson Davis. He died at Chicago, Illinois, on the 1st of November 1879. By his extraordinary force of character he exercised a wide personal influence during his lifetime, but failed to stamp his personality upon any measure or policy of lasting importance.

CHANDOS, BARONS AND DUKES OF. The English title of Chandos began as a barony in 1554, and was continued in the family of Brydges (becoming a dukedom in 1719) till 1789. In 1822 the dukedom was revived in connexion with that of Buckingham.

John Brydges, 1st Baron Chandos (c. 1490–1557), a son of Sir Giles Brydges, or Bruges (d. 1511), was a prominent figure at the English court during the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI. and Mary. He took part in suppressing the rebellion of Sir Thomas Wyat in 1554, and as lieutenant of the Tower of London during the earlier part of Mary’s reign, had the custody, not only of Lady Jane Grey and of Wyat, but for a short time of the princess Elizabeth. He was created Baron Chandos of Sudeley in 1554, one of his ancestors, Alice, being a grand-daughter of Sir Thomas Chandos (d. 1375), and he died in March 1557. The three succeeding barons, direct descendants of the 1st baron, were all members of parliament and persons of some importance. Grey, 5th Baron Chandos (c. 1580–1621), lord-lieutenant of Gloucestershire, was called the “king of the Cotswolds,” owing to his generosity and his magnificent style of living at his residence, Sudeley Castle. He has been regarded by Horace Walpole and others as the author of some essays, Horae Subsecivae. His elder son George, 6th Baron Chandos (1620–1655), was a supporter of Charles I. during his struggle with Parliament, and distinguished himself at the first battle of Newbury in 1643. He had six daughters but no sons, and after the death of his brother William in 1676 the barony came to a kinsman, Sir James Brydges, Bart. (1642–1714), who was English ambassador to Constantinople from 1680 to 1685.

James Brydges, 1st duke of Chandos (1673–1744), son and heir of the last-named, had been member of parliament for Hereford from 1698 to 1714, and, three days after his father’s death, was created Viscount Wilton and earl of Carnarvon. For eight years, from 1705 to 1713, during the War of the Spanish