compositions. The following works may be mentioned amongst many others:—Caio Mario; the three biblical operas, Assalone, La Giuditta and Il Sacrificio d’ Abramo; also Il Convito di Pietra; and La Ballerina amante, a pretty comic opera first performed at Venice with enormous success.
About the year 1788 Cimarosa went to St Petersburg by invitation of the empress Catherine II. At her court he remained four years and wrote an enormous number of compositions, mostly of the nature of piecès d’occasion. Of most of these not even the names are on record. In 1792 Cimarosa left St Petersburg, and went to Vienna at the invitation of the emperor Leopold II. Here he produced his masterpiece, Il Matrimonio segreto, which ranks amongst the highest achievements of light operatic music. In 1793 Cimarosa returned to Naples, where Il Matrimonio segreto and other works were received with great applause. Amongst the works belonging to his last stay in Naples may be mentioned the charming opera Le Astuzie feminili. This period of his life is said to have been embittered by the intrigues of envious and hostile persons, amongst whom figured his old rival Paisiello. During the occupation of Naples by the troops of the French Republic, Cimarosa joined the liberal party, and on the return of the Bourbons, was, like many of his political friends, condemned to death. By the intercession of influential admirers his sentence was commuted into banishment, and he left Naples with the intention of returning to St Petersburg. But his health was broken, and after much suffering he died at Venice on the 11th of January 1801, of inflammation of the intestines. The nature of his disease led to the rumour of his having been poisoned by his enemies, which, however, a formal inquest proved to be unfounded. He worked till the last moment of his life, and one of his operas, Artemizia, remained unfinished at his death.
CIMBRI, a Teutonic tribe who made their first appearance in Roman history in the year 113 B.C., when they defeated the consul Gnaeus Papirius Carbo near Noreia in the modern Carinthia. It was the common belief that they had been driven from their homes on the North Sea by inundations, but, whatever the cause of their migration, they had been wandering along the Danube for some years warring with the Celtic tribes on either bank. After the victory of 113 they passed westwards over the Rhine, threatening the territory of the Allobroges. Their request for land was not granted, and in 109 B.C. they defeated the consul Marcus Junius Silanus in southern Gaul, but did not at once follow up the victory. In 105 they returned to the attack under their king Boiorix, and favoured by the dissensions of the Roman commanders Gnaeus Mallius Maximus and Caepio, defeated them in detail and annihilated their armies at Arausio (Orange). Again the victorious Cimbri turned away from Italy, and, after attempting to reduce the Arverni, moved into Spain, where they failed to overcome the desperate resistance of the Celtiberian tribes. In 103 they marched back through Gaul, which they overran as far as the Seine, where the Belgae made a stout resistance. Near Rouen the Cimbri were reinforced by the Teutoni and two cantons of the Helvetii. Thereupon the host marched southwards by two routes, the Cimbri moving on the left towards the passes of the Eastern Alps, while the newly arrived Teutoni and their allies made for the western gates of Italy. In 102 B.C. the Teutoni and Ambrones were totally defeated at Aquae Sextiae by Marius, while the Cimbri succeeded in passing the Alps and driving Q. Lutatius Catulus across the Adige and Po. In 101 Marius overthrew them on the Raudine Plain near Vercellae. Their king Boiorix was killed and the whole army destroyed. The Cimbri were the first in the long line of the Teutonic invaders of Italy.
The original home of the Cimbri has been much disputed. It is recorded in the Monumentum Ancyranum that a Roman fleet sailing eastwards from the mouth of the Rhine (c. A.D. 5) received at the farthest point reached the submission of a people called Cimbri, who sent an embassy to Augustus. Several early writers agree in saying that the Cimbri occupied a peninsula, and in the map of Ptolemy Jutland appears as the Cimbric Chersonese. As Ptolemy seems to have regarded the district north of the Liimfjord (Limfjord) as a group of islands, the territory of the Cimbri, the northernmost tribe of the peninsula, would be included in the modern county (Amt) of Aalborg. This was formerly called Himbersyssel or Himmerland, forms which may very well preserve their name, especially as the name Charydes, mentioned next to them in the Monumentum Ancyranum, appears to survive in the modern Hardeland. Possibly also the district across the Liimfjord formerly called Thythsyssel or Thyland may in the same way preserve the name of the Teutoni (q.v.). Strabo and other early writers relate a number of curious facts concerning the customs of the Cimbri, which are of great interest as the earliest records of the manner of life of the Teutonic nations.
Sources.—Livy, Epitome, lxvii., lxviii.; Monumentum Ancyranum; Pomponius Mela iii. 3; C. Plinius Secundus, Nat. Hist. iv. cap. 13 and 14, §§ 95 ff.; Strabo p. 292 ff.; Plutarch, Marius. passim; Florus iii. 3; Ptolemy ii. 11. 11 f. (F. G. M. B.)
CIMICIFUGA, in botany, a small genus of herbaceous plants, of the natural order Ranunculaceae, which is widely distributed in the north temperate zone. C. foetida, bugbane, is used as a preventive against vermin; and the root of a North American species, C. racemosa, known as black snake-root, as an emetic.
CIMMERII, an ancient people of the far north or west of Europe, first spoken of by Homer (Odyssey, xi. 12–19), who describes them as living in perpetual darkness. Herodotus (iv. 11–13), in his account of Scythia, regards them as the early inhabitants of South Russia (after whom the Bosporus Cimmerius [q.v.] and other places were named), driven by the Scyths along by the Caucasus into Asia Minor, where they maintained themselves for a century. But the Cimmerii are often mentioned in connexion with the Thracian Treres who made their raids across the Hellespont, and it is quite possible that some Cimmerii took this route, having been cut off by the Scyths as the Alani (q.v.) were by the Huns. Certain it is that in the middle of the 7th century B.C., Asia Minor was ravaged by northern nomads (Herod, iv. 12), one body of whom is called in Assyrian sources Gimirrai and is represented as coming through the Caucasus. They were probably Iranian speakers, to judge by the few proper names preserved. The name has also been identified with the biblical Gomer, son of Japheth (Gen. x. 2, 3). To the north of the Euxine their main body was merged in the invading Scyths. Later writers identified them with the Cimbri of Jutland, who were probably Teutonized Celts, but this is a mere guess due to the similarity of name. The Homeric Cimmerii belong to an early part of the Odyssey in which the hero was conceived as wandering in the Euxine; these adventures were afterwards translated to the western Mediterranean in accordance with a wider geographical outlook.
CIMON [Κίμων] (c. 507–449), Athenian statesman and general, was the son of Miltiades (q.v.) and Hegesipyle, daughter of the Thracian prince Olorus. Miltiades died in disgrace, leaving unpaid the fine imposed upon him for his conduct at Paros. Cimon’s first task in life, therefore, was to remove the stain on the family name by paying this fine (about £12,000). In the second Persian invasion, especially at Salamis, and in the consolidation of the Delian League, he won a high reputation for courage and integrity. At first with Aristides, and afterwards as sole commander, he directed the Athenian contingent of the fleet; on the disgrace of Pausanias he practically commanded the entire Greek fleet and drove Pausanias from his retreat in Byzantium. Having captured Eion (at the mouth of the Strymon), he expelled the Persian garrisons from the entire seaboard of Thrace with the exception of Doriscus, and, having defeated the piratical Dolopians of Scyros (470), confirmed his popularity by transferring thence to Athens the supposed bones of the Attic hero Theseus. The bones were buried in Athens, and over the tomb the Theseum (temple) was erected. In 466 Cimon proceeded to liberate the Greek cities of Lyda and Pamphylia, and at the mouth of the Eurymedon he defeated the Persians decisively by land and sea.