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Page:EB1911 - Volume 06.djvu/663

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represented by the line of descent—III. to Anthozoa—this group abandoned its power of adult locomotion by swimming. During these periods were also attained those less important structural characters which these three groups present to-day.  (G. H. Fo.) 

EB1911 Coelentera - descent.jpg

COELLO, ALONSO SANCHEZ (1515–1590), Spanish painter, according to some authorities a native of Portugal, was born, according to others, at Benifacio, near the city of Valencia. He studied many years in Italy; and returning to Spain in 1541 he settled at Madrid, and worked on religious themes for most of the palaces and larger churches. He was a follower of Titian, and, like him, excelled in portraits and single figures, elaborating the textures of his armours, draperies, and such accessories in a manner so masterly as strongly to influence Velazquez in his treatment of like objects. Many of his pictures were destroyed in the fires that consumed the Madrid and Prado palaces, but many good examples are yet extant, among which may be noted the portraits of the infantes Carlos and Isabella, now in the Madrid gallery, and the St Sebastian painted in the church of San Gerónimo, also in Madrid. Coello left a daughter, Isabella Sanchez, who studied under him, and painted excellent portraits.

COELLO, ANTONIO (1610?–1652), Spanish dramatist and poet, was born at Madrid about the beginning of the 17th century. He entered the household of the duke de Albuquerque, and after some years of service in the army received the order of Santiago in 1648. He was a favourite of Philip IV., who is reported to have collaborated with him; this rumour is not confirmed, but there is ample proof of Coello’s collaboration with Calderón, Rojas Zorrilla, Solís and Velez de Guevara, the most distinguished dramatists of the age. The best of his original plays, Los Empeños de seis horas, has been wrongly ascribed to Calderón; it was adapted by Samuel Tuke, under the title of The Adventures of five Hours, and was described by Pepys as superior to Othello. It is an excellent example of stagecraft and animated dialogue. Coello died on the 20th of October 1652, shortly after his nomination to a post in the household of Philip IV.

COELOM AND SEROUS MEMBRANES. In human anatomy the body-cavity or coelom (Gr. κοῖλος, hollow) is divided into the pericardium, the two pleurae, the peritoneum and the two tunicae vaginales.

The pericardium is a closed sac which occupies the central part of the thorax and contains the heart. Like all the serous membranes it has a visceral and a parietal layer, the former of which is closely applied to the heart and consists of endothelial cells with a slight fibrous backing: to it is due the glossy appearance of a freshly removed heart. The parietal layer is double; externally there is a strong fibrous protective coat which is continuous with the other fibrous structures in the neighbourhood, especially with the sheaths of the great vessels at the root of the heart, with prolongations of the fascia of the neck, and with the central tendon of the diaphragm, while internally is the serous layer which is reflected from the surface of the heart, where the great vessels enter, so that everywhere the two layers of the serous membrane are in contact, and the only thing within the cavity is a drop or two of the fluid secreted by the serous walls. When the parietal layer is laid open and the heart removed by cutting through the great vessels, it will be seen that there are two lines of reflection of the serous layer, one common to the aorta and pulmonary artery, the other to all the pulmonary veins and the two venae cavae.

EB1911 Coelom - Fig. 1.—Diagram of Abdomen.jpg
Fig. 1.—Diagram of vertical
median section of Abdomen.
 A, Aorta. D, Duodenum.
 P, Pancreas. B, Bladder.
 I,Intestine. St,Stomach.
 R, Rectum. C, Colon.
 L, Liver. V,Vagina.
(The fine dots represent the great sac of the peritoneum, the coarse dots the lesser sac.)

The pleurae very closely resemble the pericardium except that the fibrous outer coat of the parietal layer is not nearly as strong; it is closely attached to the inner surface of the chest walls and mesially to the outer layer of the pericardium; above it is thickened by a fibrous contribution from the scalene muscles, and this forms the dome of the pleura which fits into the concavity of the first rib and contains the apex of the lung. The reflection of the serous layer of the pleura, from the parietal to the visceral part, takes place at the root of the lung, where the great vessels enter, and continues for some distance below this as the ligamentum latum pulmonis. The upper limit of the pleural cavity reaches about half an inch above the inner third of the clavicle, while, below, it may be marked out by a line drawn from the twelfth thoracic spine to the tenth rib in the mid axillary line, the eighth rib in the nipple line, and the sixth rib at its junction with the sternum. There is probably very little difference in the lower level of the pleurae on the two sides.

The peritoneum is a more extensive and complicated membrane than either the pericardium or pleura; it surrounds the abdominal and pelvic viscera, and, like the other sacs, has a parietal and visceral layer. The line of reflection of these, though a continuous one, is very tortuous. The peritoneum consists of a greater and lesser sac which communicate through an opening known as the foramen of Winslow, and the most satisfactory way of understanding these is to follow the reflections first in a vertical median (sagittal) section and then in a horizontal one, the body being supposed to be in the upright position. If a median sagittal section be studied first, and a start be made at the umbilicus (see fig. 1), the parietal peritoneum is seen to run upward, lining the anterior abdominal wall, and then to pass along the under surface of the diaphragm till its posterior third is reached; here there is a reflection on to the liver (L), forming the anterior layer of the coronary ligament of that viscus, while the membrane now becomes visceral and envelops the front of the liver as far back as the transverse fissure on its lower surface; here it is reflected on to the stomach (St) forming the anterior layer of the gastro-hepatic or lesser omentum. It now covers the front of the stomach, and at the lower border runs down as the anterior layer of an apron-like fold, the great omentum, which in some cases reaches as low as the pubes; then it turns up again as the posterior or fourth layer of the great omentum until the transverse colon (C) is reached, the posterior surface of which it covers and is reflected, as the posterior layer of the transverse meso-colon, to the lower part of the pancreas (P); after this it turns down and covers the anterior surface of the third part of the duodenum (D) till the posterior wall of the abdomen is reached, from which it is reflected on to the small intestine (I) as the anterior layer of the mesentery, a fold varying from 5 to 8 in. between its