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CONNAUGHT—CONNECTICUT

and was thanked by parliament. In 1886 the duke went to India and commanded the Bombay army until 1890, when he returned home. He commanded the southern district from 1890 to 1893, and that of Aldershot from 1893 to 1898. On the departure of Lord Roberts for South Africa the duke succeeded him as commander-in-chief of the forces in Ireland, 9th of January 1900. On attaining his majority in 1871 an annuity of £15,000 was granted to Prince Arthur by parliament, and in 1874 he was created duke of Connaught and Strathearn and earl of Sussex. On the 13th of March 1879 he married Princess Louise Marguerite of Prussia, third daughter of Prince Frederick Charles, and received an additional annuity of £10,000. The duke and duchess represented Queen Victoria at the coronation of the tsar Nicholas II. at Moscow in 1896. On the reorganization of the war office and the higher commands in 1904, the duke was appointed to the new office of inspector-general to the forces, from which he retired in 1907, being then given the new post of commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean, stationed at Malta, which he held until 1909.


CONNAUGHT, a province of Ireland occupying the Midwestern portion of the island, and having as the greater part of its eastern boundary the river Shannon, over its middle course. It includes the counties Mayo, Sligo, Leitrim, Galway and Roscommon (qq.v. for topography, &c.). According to the legendary chronicles of Ireland, Connaught (Connacht) was given by the Milesian conquerors of the country to the Damnonians, and the Book of Leinster gives Tinne mac Conrath (20 B.C.) as the first of the list of the kings of all Connaught, whose realm at its greatest extent included also the district of Brenny or Breffny, corresponding to the modern county of Cavan. The Damnonian dynasty held its own till the 4th century A.D., when it was ousted by the Milesian Muireadhach Tireach, king paramount (airdrigh) of Ireland from 331 to 357. Henceforth the annals of Connaught are of little interest until the end of the 12th century, when William de Burgh received a grant of lands in Connaught from King John as lord paramount of Ireland. In the quarrel between Cathal Carrach and Cathal Crovderg for the throne he supported either side in turn, with the result that he lost his Connaught estates in 1203. In 1207, however, his son Richard received a grant from King Henry III. of the forfeited lands of the king of Connaught, and thenceforth the history of the province is closely bound up with that of the great family of Burgh (q.v.). In 1461 Connaught, with Ulster, fell nominally to the crown, in the person of Edward IV., as heir of Lionel, duke of Clarence, and his wife, daughter and heiress of William de Burgh, 3rd earl of Ulster (d. 1333). In the wild districts of the west of Ireland, however, legal titles were easier to claim than to enforce, and from 1333 onward Connaught was in fact divided between the de Burghs, Bourcks or Burkes (MacWilliam “Oughters ” and MacWilliam “Eighters”), assimilated now to the Irish in dress and manners, and the native kings of the ancient Milesian dynasty, which survived till 1464. It was not till the 16th century that Connaught began to be effectively brought under English rule. A stage in this direction was marked by the conversion in 1543 of the MacWilliam Eighter, Ulick Bourck, into a noble on the English model as earl of Clanricarde; though it was not till 1603 that the MacWilliam Oughter became Viscount Mayo. Meanwhile, about 1580, Connaught was for the most part divided into shires by Sir Henry Sidney, who also brought into existence the administration of Connaught and Munster by presidents, which continued for seventy years. The county Clare (hitherto Thomond or North Munster) was now annexed to Connaught, and continued to belong to it down to the Restoration.


CONNEAUT, a city of Ashtabula county, Ohio, U.S.A., on Lake Erie at the mouth of Conneaut Creek, and about 68 m. N.E. of Cleveland. Pop. (1890) 3241; (1900) 7133 (1227 foreign born); (1910) 8319. It is served by the New York, Chicago & St Louis (which has railway repair shops here), the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, and the Bessemer & Lake Erie railways, and by car ferries which ply between Conneaut and Rondeau and Port Stanley on the Canadian side of Lake Erie. There is a beautiful public park of 20 acres on the lake shore. Conneaut is situated in a grain-growing and dairying region; it has an excellent harbour to and from which coal and ore are shipped, and is a sub-port of entry. The city has planing mills, flour mills, brick works, tanneries, canneries and manufactories of electric and gas fixtures, electric lamps and tungsten gas lamps. The municipality owns and operates its electric-lighting plant. In 1796 surveyors for the Connecticut Land Co. built a log storehouse here, but the permanent settlement dates from 1798; in 1832 Conneaut was incorporated, and it became a city in 1898.


CONNECTICUT, one of the thirteen original states of the United States of America, and one of the New England group of states. It is bounded N. by Massachusetts, E. by Rhode Island, S. by Long Island Sound, and W. by New York; the S.W. corner projects along the Sound S. of New York for about 13 m. Situated between 40° 54′ and 42° 3′ N. lat., and 71° 47′ and 73° 43′ W. long., its total area is 4965 sq. m., of which 145 are water surface: only two states of the Union, Rhode Island and Delaware, are smaller in area.

Physiography.—Connecticut lies in the S. portion of the peneplain region of New England. Its surface is in general that of a gently undulating upland divided near the middle by the lowland of the Connecticut valley, the most striking physio graphic feature of the state. The upland rises from the low S. shore at an average rate of about 20 ft. in a mile until it has a mean elevation along the N. border of the state of 1000 ft. or more, and a few points in the N .W. rise to a height of about 2000 ft. above the sea. The lowland dips under the waters of Long Island Sound at the S. and rises slowly to a height of only 100 ft. above them where it crosses the N. border. At the N. this lowland is about 15 m. wide; at the S. it narrows to only 5 m. and its total area is about 600 sq. m. Its formation was caused by the removal of a band of weak rocks by erosion after the general upland surface had been first formed near sea-level and then elevated and tilted gently S. or S.E.; in this band of weak rocks were several sheets of hard igneous rock (trap) inclined from the horizontal several degrees, and so resistant that they were not removed but remained to form the “trap ridges” such as West Rock Ridge near New Haven and the Hanging Hills of Meriden. These are identical in origin and structure with Mt. Tom Range and Holyoke Range of Massachusetts, being the S. continuation of those structures. The ridges are generally deeply notched, but their highest points rise to the upland heights, directly to the E. or W. The W. section of the upland is more broken than the E. section, for in the W. are several isolated peaks lying in line with the S. continuation of the Green and the Housatonic mountain ranges of Vermont and Massachusetts, the highest among them being: Bear Mountain (Salisbury) 2355 ft.; Gridley Mountain (Salisbury), 2200 ft.; Mt. Riga (Salisbury), 2000 ft.; Mt. Ball (Norfolk) and Lion’s Head (Salisbury), each 1760 ft.; Canaan Mountain (North Canaan), 1680 ft.; and Ivy Mountain (Goshen), 1640 ft. just as the surface of the lowland is broken by the notched trap-ridges, so that of the upland is often interrupted by rather narrow deep valleys, or gorges, extending usually from N. to S. or to the S.E. The lowland is drained by the Connecticut river as far S. as Middletown, but here this river turns to the S.E. into one of the narrow valleys in the E. section of the upland, the turn being due to the fact that the river acquired its present course when the land was at a lower level and before the lowland on the soft rocks was excavated. The principal rivers in the W. section of the upland are the Housatonic and its affluent, the Naugatuck; in the E. section is the Thames which is really an outlet for three other rivers (the Yantic, the Shetucket and the Quinebaug). In the central and N. regions of the state the course of the rivers is rapid, owing to a relatively recent tilting of the surface. The Connecticut river is navigable as far as Hartford, and the Thames as far as Norwich. The Housatonic river, which in its picturesque course traverses the whole breadth of the state, has a short stretch of tide-water navigation. The lakes which are found in all parts of the state and the rapids and waterfalls along the rivers are largely due to disturbances of the drainage lines by the ice invasion of the glacial period.