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CONNECTICUT


Equally important was the moral support given to the Federal government by the people.

After the war the Republicans were more frequently successful at the polls than the Democrats. Representation in the lower house of the general assembly, by the constitution of 1818, was based on the townships, each township having two representatives, except townships created after 1818, which had only one each; this method constituted a serious evil when, in the transition from agriculture to manufacturing as the leading industry, the population became concentrated to a considerable degree in a few large cities, and the relative importance of the various townships was greatly changed. The township of Marlborough, with a population in 1900 of 322, then had one representative, while the city of Hartford, with a population of 79,850, had only two; and the township of Union, with 428 inhabitants, and the city of New Haven, with 108,027, each had two representatives. The apportionment of representation in the state senate had become almost as objectionable. By a constitutional amendment of 1828 it had been provided that senators should be chosen by districts, and that in the apportionment regard should be had to population, no county or township to be divided and no part of one county to be joined to the whole or part of another county, and each county to have at least two senators; but by 1900 any relation that the districts might once have had to population had disappeared. The system of representation had sometimes put in power a political party representing a minority of the voters: in 1878, 1884, 1886, 1888 and 1890 the Democratic candidates for state executive offices received a plurality vote; but, as a majority was not obtained, these elections were referred to the general assembly, and the Republican party in control of the lower house secured the election of its candidates; in 1901 constitutional amendments were adopted making a plurality vote sufficient for election, increasing the number of senatorial districts, and stipulating that “in forming them regard shall be had” to population. But the greater inequalities in township representation subsisted, although in 1874 an amendment had given all townships of 5000 inhabitants two seats in the lower house, every other one “to be entitled to its present representation,” and in 1876 another amendment had provided that no township incorporated thereafter should be entitled to a representative “unless it has at least 2500 inhabitants, and unless the town from which the major portion of its territory is taken has also at least 2500 inhabitants.” These provisions did not remedy the grosser defects, and as proposals for an amendment of the constitution could be submitted to the people only after receiving a majority vote of the lower house, all further attempts at effective reform seemed to be blocked, owing to the unwillingness of the representatives of the smaller townships to surrender their unusual degree of power. Therefore, the question of calling a constitutional convention, for which the present constitution makes no provision, was submitted to the people in 1901, and was carried. But the act providing for the convention had stipulated that the delegates thereto should be chosen on the basis of township representation instead of population. The small townships thus secured practical control of the convention, and no radical changes were made. A compromise amendment submitted by the convention, providing for two representatives for each township of 2000 inhabitants, and one more for each 5000 above 50,000, satisfied neither side, and when submitted to a popular vote, on the 16th of June 1902, was overwhelmingly defeated.

Governors of Connecticut[1]
The Colony of Connecticut.
John Haynes 1639–1640
Edward Hopkins 1640–1641
John Haynes 1641–1642
George Wyllys 1642–1643
John Haynes 1643–1644
Edward Hopkins 1644–1645
John Haynes 1645–1646
Edward Hopkins 1646–1647
John Haynes 1647–1648
Edward Hopkins 1648–1649
John Haynes 1649–1650
Edward Hopkins 1650–1651
John Haynes 1651–1652
Edward Hopkins 1652–1653
John Haynes 1653–1654
Edward Hopkins 1654–1655
Thomas Welles 1655–1656
John Webster 1656–1657
John Winthrop 1657–1658
Thomas Welles 1658–1659
John Winthrop 1659–1676
William Leete 1676–1683
Robert Treat 1683–1687
Edmund Andros 1687–1689
Robert Treat 1689–1698
Fitz John Winthrop 1698–1708
Gurdon Saltonstall 1708–1725
Joseph Talcott 1725–1742
Jonathan Law 1742–1751
Roger Wolcott 1751–1754
Thomas Fitch 1754–1766
William Pitkin 1766–1769
Jonathan Trumbull 1769–1776
The New Haven Colony.
Theophilus Eaton 1639–1657
Francis Newman 1658–1660
William Leete 1661–1665
State Governors
Jonathan Trumbull 1776–1784  Federalist
Matthew Griswold 1784–1786
Samuel Huntingdon 1786–1796
Oliver Wolcott 1796–1797
Jonathan Trumbull 1797–1809
John Treadwell 1809–1811
Roger Griswold 1811–1812
John Cotton Smith 1812–1817
Oliver Wolcott 1817–1827  Democrat
Gideon Tomlinson 1827–1831  Federalist
John S. Peters 1831–1833  Whig
Henry W. Edwards 1833–1834  Democrat
Samuel A. Foote 1834–1835  Whig
Henry W. Edwards 1835–1838  Democrat
William W. Ellsworth 1838–1842  Whig
Chauncey F. Cleveland 1842–1844  Democrat
Roger S. Baldwin 1844–1846  Whig
Isaac Toucey 1846–1847  Democrat
Clark Bissell 1847–1849  Whig
Joseph Trumbull 1849–1850
Thomas H. Seymour 1850–1853  Democrat
Charles H. Pond (Acting) 1853–1854
Henry Dutton 1854–1855  Whig
William T. Minor 1855–1857  Know-Nothing 
Alexander H. Holley 1857–1858  Republican
William A. Buckingham 1858–1866
Joseph R. Hawley 1866–1867
James E. English 1867–1869  Democrat
Marshall Jewell 1869–1870  Republican
James E. English 1870–1871  Democrat
Marshall Jewell 1871–1873  Republican
Charles R. Ingersoll 1873–1877  Democrat
Richard D. Hubbard 1877–1879  Democrat
Charles B. Andrews 1879–1881  Republican
Hobart B. Bigelow 1881–1883  Republican
Thomas M. Waller 1883–1885  Democrat
Henry B. Harrison 1885–1887  Republican
Phineas C. Lounsbury 1887–1889
Morgan G. Bulkeley 1889–1893
Luzon B. Morris 1893–1895  Democrat
O. Vincent Coffin 1895–1897  Republican
Lorrin A. Cooke 1897–1899
George E. Lounsbury 1899–1901
George P. McLean 1901–1903
Abiram Chamberlain 1903–1905
Henry Roberts 1905–1907
Rollin S. Woodruff 1907–1909
George L. Lilley 1909
Frank W. Weeks 1909–1911
Simeon E. Baldwin 1911  Democrat

Bibliography.—The “Acorn Club” has recently published a list of books printed in Connecticut between 1709 and 1800 (Hartford, 1904), and Alexander Johnston’s Connecticut (Boston, 1887) contains a bibliography of Connecticut’s history up to 1886. Information concerning the physical features of the state may be obtained in William M. Davis’s Physical Geography of Southern New England (National Geographical Society Publications, 1895). For information concerning industries, &c., see the Twelfth Census of the United States, and the Census of Manufactures of 1905, and a chapter in Johnston’s Connecticut.

For law and administration, consult the last two chapters on
  1. Term of service, one year until 1876; thereafter, two years.