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tobacco, sugar-cane, and fruits and garden produce in great variety. Silk, known as tussur, the produce of a wild species of worm, is utilized on a large scale. Lac, suitable for use as a resin or dye, gums and oils are found in great quantities. Hides, raw and tanned, are articles of some importance in commerce. The principal exports are cotton, oil-seeds, country-clothes and hides; the imports are salt, grain, timber, European piece-goods and hardware. The mineral wealth of the state consists of coal, copper, iron, diamonds and gold; but the development of these resources has not hitherto been very successful. The only coal mine now worked is the large one at Singareni, with an annual out-turn of nearly half a million tons. This coal has enabled the nizam’s guaranteed state railway to be worked so cheaply that it now returns a handsome profit to the state. It also gives encouragement to much-needed schemes of railway extension, and to the erection of cotton presses and of spinning and weaving mills. The Hyderabad-Godavari railway (opened in 1901) traverses a rich cotton country, and cotton presses have been erected along the line. The currency of the state is based on the hali sikka, which contains approximately the same weight of silver as the British rupee, but its exchange value fell heavily after 1893, when free coinage ceased in the mint. In 1904, however, a new coin (the Mahbubia rupee) was minted; the supply was regulated, and the rate of exchange became about 115 = 100 British rupees. The state suffered from famine during 1900, the total number of persons in receipt of relief rising to nearly 500,000 in June of that year. The nizam met the demands for relief with great liberality.

The nizam of Hyderabad is the principal Mahommedan ruler in India. The family was founded by Asaf Jah, a distinguished Turkoman soldier of the emperor Aurangzeb, who in 1713 was appointed subahdar of the Deccan, with the title of nizam-ul-mulk (regulator of the state), but eventually threw off the control of the Delhi court. Azaf Jah’s death in 1748 was followed by an internecine struggle for the throne among his descendants, in which the British and the French took part. At one time the French nominee, Salabat Jang, established himself with the help of Bussy. But finally, in 1761, when the British had secured their predominance throughout southern India, Nizam Ali took his place and ruled till 1803. It was he who confirmed the grant of the Northern Circars in 1766, and joined in the two wars against Tippoo Sultan in 1792 and 1799. The additions of territory which he acquired by these wars was afterwards (1800) ceded to the British, as payment for the subsidiary force which he had undertaken to maintain. By a later treaty in 1853, the districts known as Berar were “assigned” to defray the cost of the Hyderabad contingent. In 1857 when the Mutiny broke out, the attitude of Hyderabad as the premier native state and the cynosure of the Mahommedans in India became a matter of extreme importance; but Afzul-ud-Dowla, the father of the present ruler, and his famous minister, Sir Salar Jang, remained loyal to the British. An attack on the residency was repulsed, and the Hyderabad contingent displayed their loyalty in the field against the rebels. In 1902 by a treaty made by Lord Curzon, Berar was leased in perpetuity to the British government, and the Hyderabad contingent was merged in the Indian army. The nizam Mir Mahbub Ali Khan Bahadur, Asaf Jah, a direct descendant of the famous nizam-ul-mulk, was born on the 18th of August 1866. On the death of his father in 1869 he succeeded to the throne as a minor, and was invested with full powers in 1884. He is notable as the originator of the Imperial Service Troops, which now form the contribution of the native chiefs to the defence of India. On the occasion of the Panjdeh incident in 1885 he made an offer of money and men, and subsequently on the occasion of Queen Victoria’s Jubilee in 1887 he offered 20 lakhs (£130,000) annually for three years for the purpose of frontier defence. It was finally decided that the native chiefs should maintain small but well-equipped bodies of infantry and cavalry for imperial defence. For many years past the Hyderabad finances were in a very unhealthy condition, the expenditure consistently outran the revenue, and the nobles, who held their tenure under an obsolete feudal system, vied with each other in ostentatious extravagance. But in 1902, on the revision of the Berar agreement, the nizam received 25 lakhs (£167,000) a year for the rent of Berar, thus substituting a fixed for a fluctuating source of income, and a British financial adviser was appointed for the purpose of reorganizing the resources of the state.

See S. H. Bilgrami and C. Willmott, Historical and Descriptive Sketch of the Nizam’s Dominions (Bombay, 1883–1884).

HYDERABAD or Haidarabad, capital of the above state, is situated on the right bank of the river Musi, a tributary of the Kistna, with Golconda to the west, and the residency and its bazaars and the British cantonment of Secunderabad to the north-east. It is the fourth largest city in India; pop. (1901) 448,466, including suburbs and cantonment. The city itself is in shape a parallelogram, with an area of more than 2 sq. m. It was founded in 1589 by Mahommed Kuli, fifth of the Kutb Shahi kings, of whose period several important buildings remain as monuments. The principal of these is the Char Minar or Four Minarets (1591). The minarets rise from arches facing the cardinal points, and stand in the centre of the city, with four roads radiating from their base. The Ashur Khana (1594), a ceremonial building, the hospital, the Gosha Mahal palace and the Mecca mosque, a sombre building designed after a mosque at Mecca, surrounding a paved quadrangle 360 ft. square, were the other principal buildings of the Kutb Shahi period, though the mosque was only completed in the time of Aurangzeb. The city proper is surrounded by a stone wall with thirteen gates, completed in the time of the first nizam, who made Hyderabad his capital. The suburbs, of which the most important is Chadarghat, extend over an additional area of 9 sq. m. There are several fine palaces built by various nizams, and the British residency is an imposing building in a large park on the left bank of the Musi, N.E. of the city. The bazaars surrounding it, and under its jurisdiction, are extremely picturesque and are thronged with natives from all parts of India. Four bridges crossed the Musi, the most notable of which was the Purana Pul, of 23 arches, built in 1593. On the 27th and 28th of September 1908, however, the Musi, swollen by torrential rainfall (during which 15 in. fell in 36 hours), rose in flood to a height of 12 ft. above the bridges and swept them away. The damage done was widespread; several important buildings were involved, including the palace of Salar Jang and the Victoria zenana hospital, while the beautiful grounds of the residency were destroyed. A large and densely populated part of the city was wrecked, and thousands of lives were lost. The principal educational establishments are the Nizam college (first grade), engineering, law, medical, normal, industrial and Sanskrit schools, and a number of schools for Europeans and Eurasians. Hyderabad is an important centre of general trade, and there is a cotton mill in its vicinity. The city is supplied with water from two notable works, the Husain Sagar and the Mir Alam, both large lakes retained by great dams. Secunderabad, the British military cantonment, is situated 51/2 m. N. of the residency; it includes Bolaram, the former headquarters of the Hyderabad contingent.

HYDER ALI, or Haidar ’Ali (c. 1722–1782), Indian ruler and commander. This Mahommedan soldier-adventurer, who, followed by his son Tippoo, became the most formidable Asiatic rival the British ever encountered in India, was the great-grandson of a fakir or wandering ascetic of Islam, who had found his way from the Punjab to Gulburga in the Deccan, and the second son of a naik or chief constable at Budikota, near Kolar in Mysore. He was born in 1722, or according to other authorities 1717. An elder brother, who like himself was early turned out into the world to seek his own fortune, rose to command a brigade in the Mysore army, while Hyder, who never learned to read or write, passed the first years of his life aimlessly in sport and sensuality, sometimes, however, acting as the agent of his brother, and meanwhile acquiring a useful familiarity with the tactics of the French when at the height of their reputation under Dupleix. He is said to have induced his brother to employ a Parsee to purchase artillery and small arms from the Bombay