Open main menu
This page needs to be proofread.

between “special” and “common” injunctions-the latter being obtained as of course-is now abolished in English law. In the courts of the United States the writ of injunction remains purely an equitable remedy. It may be issued at the instance of the president to prevent any organized obstruction to inter-state commerce or to the passage of the mails (in re Debs, 1 58 United States Reports, 564). Temporary restraining orders may be issued, ex parte, pending an application for a temporary injunction. In the state courts temporary injunctions are often issued, ex parte, subject to the defendant's right to move immediately for their dissolution. Generally, however, notice of an application for a temporary injunction is required.

For the analogous practice in Scots law see INTERDICT.

INK (from Late Lat. encaustum, Gr. é'yKaua-rov, the purple ink used by Greek and Roman emperors, from éyxaietu, to burn in), in its widest signification, a substance employed for producing graphic tracings, inscriptions, or impressions on paper or similar materials. The term includes two distinct conditions of pigment or colouring matter: the one fluid, and prepared for use with a pen or brush, as writing ink; the other a glutinous adhesive mass, printing ink, used for transferring to paper impressions from types, engraved plates and similar surfaces.

The ancient Egyptians prepared and used inks (Flinders Petrie discovered a papyrus bearing written characters as old as 2500 B.C.), and in China the invention of an ink is assigned to Tien-Tcheu, who lived between 2697 B.C. and 2597 B.C. These early inks were prepared from charcoal or soot mixed with gum, glue or varnish. Sepia (q.v.), the black pigment secreted by the cuttle-fish, was used as a writing fluid by the Romans. The iron-gall ink, i.e. an ink prepared from an iron salt and tannin, appears to have been first described by the monk Theophilus, who lived in the 11th century A.1>., although Pliny, in the 1st century A.D., was acquainted with the blackening of paper containing green vitriol by immersion in an infusion of nut-galls. Iron-gall inks, prepared by mixing extracts of galls, barks, &c., with green vitriol, subsequently came into common use, and in the 16th century recipes for their preparation were given in domestic encyclopedias. Their scientific investigation was first made by William Lewis in 1748. The earlier iron-inks were essentially a suspension of the pigment in water. In the early part of the 19th century the firm of Stephens introduced the first of the so-called blue-black inks under the name of “ Stephens' writing fluid.” Solutions of green vitriol and tannin, coloured by indigo and logwood, were prepared, which wrote with a blue tint and blackened on exposure, this change being due to the production of the pigment within the pores of the paper. The “ alizarine ” inks, patented by Leonhardi in 1856, are similar inks with the addition of a little madder. The application of aniline colours to ink manufacture in England dates from Croc's patent of 1861.

Wfiling Inks.-Writing inks are fluid substances which contain colouring matter either in solution or in suspension, and commonly partly in both conditions. They may be prepared in all shades of colour, and contain almost every pigment which can be dissolved or suspended in a suitable medium. The most important of all varieties is black ink, after which red and blue are most commonly employed. Apart from colour there are special qualities which recommend certain inks for limited applications, such as marking inks, ineradicable ink, sympathetic ink, &c. A good writing ink for ordinary purposes should continue limpid, and flow freely and uniformly from the pen; it should not throw down a thick sludgy deposit on exposure to the air; nor should a coating of mould form on its surface. It should yield distinctly legible characters immediately on writing, not fading with age; and the fluid ought to penetrate into the paper without spreading, so that the characters will neither wash out nor be readily removed by erasure. Further, it is desirable that ink should be non-poisonous, that it should as little as possible corrode steel pens, that characters traced in it should dry readily on the application of blotting paper without smearing, and that the writing should not present a glossy, varnished appearance. .

Tannin Inks.-These inks are prepared from galls, or other sources of tannin, and a salt of iron, with the addition of some agglutinantin the case of the so-called oxidized inks, or a colouring matter in the case of unoxidized inks. Such mixtures form the staple black inks of commerce; they are essentially an insoluble iron gallate in extremely fine division held in suspension in water or a soluble compound dissolved in water. On long exposure to air, as in inkstands, or otherwise, tannin inks gradually become thick and ropy, depositing a slimy sediment. This change on exposure is inevitable, resulting from the gradual oxidation of the ferrous compound, and it can only be retarded by permitting access of air to as small surfaces as possible. The inks also have a tendency to become mouldy, an evil which may be obviated by the use of a minute proportion of carbolic acid; or salicylic acid may be used. The essential ingredients of ordinary black ink are-first, tannin-yielding bodies, for which Aleppo or Chinese galls are the most eligible materials; second, a salt of iron, ferrous sulphate (green vitriol) being alone employed; and third, a gummy or mucilaginous agent to keep in suspension the insoluble tinctorial matter of the ink. For ink-making the tannin has first to be transformed into gallic acid. In the case of Aleppo galls this change takes place by fermentation when the solution of the galls is exposed to the air, the tannin splitting up into gallic acid and sugar. Chinese galls do not contain the ferment necessary for inducing this change; and to induce the process yeast must be added to their solution. To prepare a solution of Aleppo galls for ink-making, the galls are coarsely powdered, and intimately mixed with chopped straw. This mixture is thrown into a narrow deep oak vat, provided with a perforated false bottom, and having a tap at the bottom for drawing off liquid. Over the mixture is poured lukewarm water, which, percolating down, extracts and carries with it the tannin of the galls. The solution is drawn off and repeatedly run through the mixture to extract the whole of the tannin, the water used being in such proportion to the galls as will produce as nearly as possible a solution having 5% of tannin. The object of using straw in the extraction process is to maintain the porosity of the mixture, as powdered galls treated alone become so slimy with mucilaginous extract that liquid fails to percolate the mass. For each litre of the 5% solution about 45 grammes of the iron salt are used, or about 100 parts of tannin for oo parts of crystallized green vitriol. These ingredients when first mixed form a clear solution, but on their exposure to the air oxidation occurs, and an insoluble blue-black ferrosoferric gallate in extremely fine division, suspended in a coloured solution of ferrous gallate, is formed. To keep the insoluble portion suspended, a mucilaginous agent is employed, and those most available are gum senegal and gum arabic. An ink so prepared develops its intensity of colour only after some exposure; and after it has partly sunk into the paper it becomes oxidized there, and so mordant ed into the fibre. As the first faintness of the characters is a disadvantage, it is a common practice to add some adventitious colouring matter to give immediate distinctness, and for that purpose either extract of logwood or a solution of indigo is used. When logwood extract is employed, a smaller proportion of extract of galls is required, logwood itself containing a large percentage of tannin. For making an unoxidized or blue-black ink indigo is dissolved in strong sulphuric acid, and the ferrous sulphate, instead of being used direct, is prepared by placing in this indigo solution a. proper quantity of scrap iron. To free the solution from excess of uncombined acid, chalk or powdered limestone is added, whereby the free acid is fixed and a deposit of sulphate of lime formed. A solution so prepared, mixed with a tannin solution, yields a very limpid sea-green writing fluid, and as all the constituents remain in solution, no gum or other suspending medium is necessary. In consequence the ink flows freely, is easily dried and is free from the glossy appearance which arises through the use of gum.