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573
INKERMAN, BATTLE OF

1/11110/lrfiizmz, Amzcardium occidemfale (Cashew), are inks of this type.

Gold and silver inks are writing fluids in which gold and silver, or imitations of these metals, are suspended in a state of fine division. In place of gold, Dutch leaf or mosaic gold is frequently, substituted, and bronze powders are used for preparing a similar kind of ink. The metallic foil is first carefully triturated into a fine paste with honey, after which it is boiled in water containing a little alkali, and then repeatedly washed in hot water and dried at a gentle heat. A solution is prepared consisting of 1 part of pure gum arabic and r part of soluble potash glass in 4 parts of distilled water, into which the requisite quantity of the metallic powder prepared is introduced. Owing to the superior covering nature of pure gold, less of the metal is required than is necessary in the case of silver and other foils. In general r part of foil to 3 or 4 parts of solution is suhicient. The metallic lustre of writing done with this solution may be greatly heightened by gently polishing with a burnishing point. Another gold ink depends upon the formation of purple of Cassius; the linen is mordant ed with stannous chloride, and the gold applied as a gummy solution of the chloride.

Indeliblc or izzcorrodible ink is the name given to various combinations of lamp-black or other carbonaceous material with resinous substances used for writing which is exposed to the weather or to the action of strong acids or alkaline solutions. An ink having great resisting powers may be conveniently prepared by rubbing down Indian ink in common ink till the mixture Hows easily from the pen. Other combinations have more the character of coloured varnishes.

Sympat/1t'l1'c 'inks are preparations used for forming characters which only become visible on the application of heat or of some chemical reagent. Many chemicals which form in themselves colourless solutions, but which develop colour under the influence of reagents, may be used as sympathetic ink, but they are of little practical utility. Characters written in a weak solution of galls develop a dark colour on being treated with a solution of copperas; or, vice versa, the writing may be done in copperas and developed by the galls solution. Writing done in various preparations develops colour on heating which fades as the paper cools. Among such substances are solutions of the chlorides of cobalt and of nickel. Very dilute solutions of the mineral acids and of common salt and a solution of equal parts of sulphate of copper and sal»ammoniac act similarly. Writing with rice water and developing with iodine was a device much used during the Indian Mutiny.

Prizztizzg Inks.-Printing inks are essentially mixtures of a pigment and a varnish. The varnish is prepared from linseed oil, rosin and soap; the oil must be as old as possible; the rosin may be black or amber; and the soap, which is indispensable since it causes the ink to adhere uniformly to the type and also to leave the type clean after taking an impression, is yellow, or turpentine soap for dark inks, and curd soap for light inks. The varnish is prepared as follows: The oil is carefully heated until it “ strings ” properly, i.e. a drop removed from the vessel on a rod, when placed upon a plate and the rod drawn away, forms a thread about in. long. The rosin is carefully and slowly added and the mixture well stirred. The soap is then stirred in. The ink is prepared by mixing the varnish with the pigment, and grinding the massto impalpablenneness either inalevigating mill or by a stone and muller. For black ink, lamp-black mixed with a little indigo or Prussian blue is the pigment employed; for wood engravings it may be mixed with ivory black, and for copper plates with ivory-or Frankfurt black; for lithographic reproductions Paris black is used. Red inks are made with carmine or cochineal; red lead is used in cheap inks, but it rapidly blackens. Blue inks are made with indigo or Prussian blue; yellow with lead chromate or yellow ochre; green is made by mixing yellow and blue; and purple by mixing red and blue.

See C. .~. Mitchell and T. C. Hepworth, Inks, their Composiilion and lI<z¢z 1¢ ft1r!14re (1904); S. Lehner, Ink Illmzzgfrirture (1902); A. lu houillon, lznfrex elr'zra;1z'.v (1906); L. li. Andes Sn11~'ib-, Knjziefund an/lcrc ]'1'nI<'n (1906).


INKERMAN, BATTLE OF, fought on the 5th of November 1854 between a portion of the Allied English and French army besieging Sevastopol and a R ussian army under Prince Menshikov (see CRIMEAN WAR). This battle derives its name from a ruin on the northern bank of the river Tchernaya near its mouth, but it was fought some distance away, on a nameless ridge (styled Mount Inkerman after the event) between the Tchernaya and the Careenage Ravine, which latter marked the right of the siege works directed against Sevastopol itself. Part of this ridge, called Home Ridge and culminating in a knoll, was occupied by the British, while farther to the south, facing the battleground of Balaklava, a corps under General Bosquet was posted to cover the rear of the besiegers against attacks from the direction of Traktir Bridge. The Russians arranged for a combined attack on

the ridge above-mentioned by part of Menshikov's army (16, oco) and a corps (19,000) that was to issue from Sevastopol. This attack was to have, beside its own field artillery, the support of nfty-four heavy guns, and the Russian left wing on the Balaklava battleground was to keep Bosquet occupied. If successful, the attack on the ridge was to be the signal for a general attack all along the line. It was apparently intended by Mensliikovihat the column from the held army should attack the position from the north, and that the Sevastopol column should ad-Vance along the west side of the Careenage Ravine.. But he only appointed a commander to take charge of both columns at the last moment, and the want of a clear understanding as to what was to be done militated against success from the first. General Soimonov, with the Sevastopol column, after assembling his troops before dawn on the 5th, led them on to the upland east of Careenage Ravine, while the field army column, under General Pavlov, crossed the Tchernaya near its mouth, almost at right angles to Soim0nov's line of advance.