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INTENT—INTERCOLUMNIATION

administration in financial matters. They took the place of the généraux des finances and the “ treasurers of France, ” who became provincial functionaries in the various généralités. The intend ants des finances existed until the end of the ancien regime; they were at first under the authority of the surinlendanl, and subsequently under that of the conlrélcur général des finances. The intend ants des prownces date from the last thirty years of the 16th century. They were commissaries sent by the king with wide powers to restore order in the provinces after the civil wars. Their functions were at first extraordinary and temporary, but a few were retained as permanent state officials, and in course of time they came to be fairly generally distributed over the whole kingdom. The existing territorial divisions were not disturbed, each intendonl being placed over a généralilé, save in some cases where slight modifications were necessary for administrative purposes. In 'their functions, however, there is another element worthy of notice. In the 13th and 14th centuries the monarchy had organized a species of inspection (chevaucliée) over the provincial functionaries, which was performed by the mailres des requéles, and this the reform ordinances of the 16th century sought to revive. This inspectorate passed to the inlendanl, who became the resident local inspector and supervisor of all the other functionaries in his district; its connexion with the old chevauchée is plainly shown by the fact that the intend ants were almost invariably selected from the mailres des requéles. The early intend ants had naturally been largely concerned with the troops; eventually special military intend ants (the only ones that exist in modern French law) were created, but the intend ants des provinces retained certain military duties, notably those relating to the housing of the troops.

The early intend ants were called indifferently intend ants de justice or intend ants de finances, their full official title being intend ants de justice, police el jnaizces, el commissaires, déparlis dans les généralilés du royaume pour Fexéculion des ordres de Sa Majeslé. This title shows the wide range of their duties, the word “ police ” in this Connexion connoting general administration. Not being officers of the king, but merely commissaries, they could always be recalled, and their powers were fixed by the commission they received from the king. As their functions became pre»eminently administrative the laws of the 17th and 18th centuries referred many questions to their decision, and, in this respect, their powers were determined by law. They became the direct general representatives of the king in each généralilé, with authority over the other officials, whom they were empowered to censure, suspend or sometimes even replace. They were in constant touch with the king's council, with which they were connected by their original rights as mailres des requéles. In the first half of the 17th century they encountered some opposition from the governors of provinces, who had formerly been the direct political representatives of the crown, and also from the parliaments, which traditionally intervened in the administration, especially by means of arréls de réglement (decisions, from which there was no appeal, regulating questions of procedure, civil law or custom). The intend ants, however, were energetically supported, and so complete was their triumph that in the 18th century governors of provinces could not enter upon their duties without formal letlres de résideuce. The intend ants had wide powers in the drawing by lot of the militia and in the royal corvées for the making and repair of the high roads, and were largely concerned with the administration of the iaille, in which they effected useful reforms. They were the sole administrators of the principal direct and indirect imposts created in the second half of the 17th century and in the 18th century. and had full powers to settle disputes arising out of these taxes. Owing to the vast size of the districts allotted to the intend ants (there were no more than thirty-two intend ants in 1788), they often felt the need of assistants. As cornrnissaries of the king, they could delegate their powers to sub-délégués, who were, however, not royal officials, but merely mandatories of the intend ant. Decisions of the intend ant could be carried to the king's council, and those of the sub-délégué to the intend ant.

See Gabriel Hanotaux, Origines de Vinstitulion des intend ants des provinces (1884); D'Arbois de jubainville, L'/administration des intend ants d'aprés les archives de l'Aube (1880); P. Arclascheff, Provinlzalnaya adminislralsiya, 'vo Franlsii ve poshednoyo poroii starago poryadka: provintsialny Inlemlanty (St Petersburg, 1900-1906). (]. P. E.)


INTENT (from Lat. intenders, to stretch out, extend, particularly in the phrase intendere animum, to turn one's mind to, purpose), in law, the purpose or object with which an act is done. The question of intent is important with reference both to civil and criminal responsibility. Briefly, it may be said that in criminal law the constituent element of an offence is the mens rea or the guilty intent. The commission of an act without the intent is not, as a general rule, sufficient to constitute a crime, nor, on the other hand, does the existence of a guilty intent without commission of the act amount to the legal conception of a crime (see Criminal Law). In the case of civil wrongs, in general, the opposite holds good. A wrongful act done to the person or property of another carries with it legal liability, irrespective of the motive with which the act was done (see Tort). In reference to the construction of contracts, wills and other documents, the question of intention is material as showing the sense and meaning of the words used, and what they were intended to effect.


INTERAMNA LIRENAS, an ancient town of Italy in the Volscian territory near the modern Pignataro Interamna, 5 m. S.E. of Aquinum; the additional name distinguishes it from Interamna Praetuttianorum (mod. Teramo) and Interamna Nahartium (mod. Terni). It was founded by the Romans as a Latin colony in 312 B.C. as a military base in the war against Samnium, no fewer than 4000 colonists being sent thither. It was among the Latin colonies which in 209 B.C. refused to supply further contingents or money for the Hannibalic war. It became a municipium with the other Latin colonies, but we hear no more of it—mainly, no doubt, because it lay off the Via Latina. Livy's description of it as on the Via Latina is not strictly accurate, and cannot be used as an indication that the former course of the Via Latina was through Interamna. The city lay on a hill on the N. bank of the Liris, between two of its tributaries, thus lacking natural defences on the N. side alone. Many inscriptions have been found, and there are considerable remains of antiquity. One inscription bears the date A.D. 408, and the site was occupied in the middle ages by a castle called Terame or Termine.  (T. As.) 


INTERCALARY (from Lat. inlercalare, to proclaim, calore, the insertion of a day in the calendar), a term applied to a month, day or days inserted between other months or days in order to adjust the reckoning of time, based on the revolution of the earth round the sun, the day, and of the moon round the earth, the lunar month, to the revolution of the earth round the sun, the solar year (see CALENDAR). From the meaning of something inserted or placed between, intercalary is used for something which interrupts a series, or comes between two types. In botany, the term is used of growth which is not apical but somewhere between the apex and base of an organ, such as the growth in length of an Iris leaf, or of the inter node of a grass-haulm.


INTERCOLUMNIATION, in architecture, the distance between the columns of a peristyle, generally referred to in terms of the lower diameter of the column. They are thus set forth by Vitruvius (iii. 2): (a) Pycnostyle, equal to 1% diameters; (b) Systyle, 2 diameters; (c) Eustyle, 2% diameters (which was the proportion' preferred by him); (d) Diastyle, 3 diameters; and (e) Araeostyle or wide spaced, 4-diameters, a span only possible when the architrave was in wood. Vitruvius's definition would seem to apply only to examples with which he was acquainted in Rome, or to Greek temples described by authors he had studied. In the earlier Doric temples the intercolumniation is sometimes less than one diameter, and it increases gradually as the style developed; thus in the Parthenon it is Ii, in the Temple of Diana Propylaea at Eleusis, 1§ ; and in the portico at Delos, 2%. The intercolumniations of the columns of the Ionic Order are greater, averaging 2 diameters, but then the relative proportion of height to diameter in the column has to be taken into account, as also the width of the peristyle. Thus