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INVERSION

Ayrshires are kept for dairy purposes. Great numbers of the hardy Highland ponies are raised on the hill farms, and the breed of agricultural horses was improved by the introduction of Clydesdale stallions. Where pigs are reared they appear to be kept, especially amongst the crofters, for domestic consumption.

Industries.-Manufactures are few. Indeed, excepting the industries carried on in Inverness, they are almost entirely confined to distilling-at Fort William, Kingussie, Carbost, Muir of Ord and some other places-brewing, woollens (especially tartans, plaids and rough tweeds), milling and (at Kirktown near Inverness) artificial manures. The catering for the wants of thousands of sportsmen and tourists, however, provides employment for a large number of persons, and has led'to the opening of hotels even in the remotest regions. The fisheries, on the other hand, are of great value, especially to the Hebrideans. The kelp industry has died out.

Cammunications.—Owing to its physical character communication by rail is somewhat restricted, but the Highland railway enters the shire from the south near Dalwhinnie and runs to Inverness via Aviemore and Daviot. Another portion of the same system also reaches the county town from Nairnshire. The Dingwall and Skye railway passes along the southern shore of Beauly Firth. In the south-west the West Highland railway (North British) enters the county 2 m. N.W. of Rannoch station and terminates at Mallaig, via Fort William and Banavie, sending off at Spean Bridge a branch to Fort Augustus. There is also communication by steamer with the piers of the Caledonian Canal and with the Western Isles, and a considerable amount of shipping reaches Beauly and Inverness by way of Moray Firth. Coaches supplement rail and steamer at various points.

Population and Government.-The population was 90,121 in 1891, and 90,104 in 1901, when 43,281 persons spoke Gaelic and English, and 11,722 Gaelic only. The only considerable towns are Inverness (pop. in 1901, 23,066) and Fort William (2087). The county returns one member to parliament, but the county town, along with Forres, Fortrose and Nairn, belongs to the Inverness district group of parliamentary burghs. Inverness forms a sherifidom with Elgin and Nairn, and there are resident sheriEs-substitute at Inverness, Fort William, Portree and Lochmaddy. The county is under school-board jurisdiction, and there are voluntary schools (mostly Roman Catholic) in several places. The secondary schools in Inverness and some in the county earn grants for higher education. The town council of Inverness subsidizes the burgh technical and art school. At Fort Augustus is a well-known collegiate institution for the education of the sons of Well-to-do Roman Catholics.

History.-To the north of the boundary hills of the present counties of Argyll and Perth (beyond which the Romans attempted no occupation) the country was occupied by the Picts, the true Caledonians. The territory was afterwards called the province of Moray, and extended from the Spey and Loch Lochy to Caithness. These limits it retained until the 17th century, when Caithness (in 1617), Sutherland (in 1633) and Ross-shire (in 1661) were successively detached. Towards the end of the 6th century Columba undertook the conversion of the Picts, himself baptizing their king, Brude, at Inverness; but paganism died hard and tribal wars prevented progress. In the 11th century, after the death of Duncan, Scotland was divided between Macbeth and the Norwegian leader Thoriinn, who took for his share the land peopled by the northern Picts. Malcolm Canmore, avenging his father, defeated and slew Macbeth (1057), and at a later date reduced the country and annexed it to the kingdom of Scotland. In 1107, when the bishopric of Moray was founded, the influence of the Church was beginning to effect some improvement in manners. Nevertheless, a condition of insurrection supervened until the reign of David I., when colonists of noble birth were settled in various parts of the shire. After the battle of Largs (1263) the Norse yoke was thrown off. In 1303 Edward I.'s expedition to Scotland passed through the northern districts, his army laying siege to Urquhart and Beaufort castles. After the plantation the clan system gradually developed and attained in the shire its fullest power and splendour. The Frasers occupied the Aird and the district around Beauly; the Chisholms the Urquhart country; the Grants the Spey; the Camerons the land to the west and south of Loch Lochy (Locheil); the Chattan-comprising several septs such as the Macphersons, Mackintoshes, Farquharsons and Davidsons-Badenoch; the Macdonalds of the Isles Lochaber; the Clanranald Macdonalds" Moidart, Knoydart, Morar, Arisaig and Glengarry; and the Macleods Skye. Unfortunately the proud and fiery chieftains were seldom quiet. The clans were constantly fighting each other, occasionally varying their warfare by rebellion against the sovereign. In many quarters the Protestant movement made no headway, the clansmen remaining steadfast to the older creed. At the era of the Covenant, Montrose conducted a vigorous campaign in the interests of the Royalists, gaining a brilliant victory at Inverlochy (1645), but the effects of his crusade were speedily neutralized by the equally masterly strategy of Cromwell. Next Episcopacy appeared to be securing a foothold, until Viscount Dundee fell at Killiecrankie, that battle being followed by a defeat of the Highlanders at Cromdale in 1690. The futile rising headed by Mar in 1715 led toacombined effort to hold the clans in check. Forts were constructed at Inverness, Kilchumin (Fort Augustus) and-Kilmallie (Fort William); Wade's famous roads-exhibiting at many points notable examples of engineering-enabled the king's soldiers rapidly to scour the country, and general disarming was required. Prince Charles Edward's attempt in 1745 had the effect of bringing most of the clans together for a while; but the clan system was broken up after his failure and escape. Heritable jurisdictions were abolished. Even the wearing of the Highland dress was proscribed. The effects of this policy were soon evident. Many of the chieftains became embarrassed, their estates were sold, and the glens folk, impoverished but high spirited, sought homes in Canada and the United States. As time passed and passion abated, the proposal was made to raise several Highland regiments for the British army. It was entertained with surprising favour, and among the regiments then enrolled were the 79th Cameron Highlanders. With the closing of the chapter of the Tacobite romance the shire gradually settled down to peaceful pursuits.

The county in parts is rich in antiquarian remains. Stone axes and other weapons or tools have been dug up in the peat, and prehistoric jewelry has also been found. Lake dwellings occur in Loch Lundy in Glengarry and on Loch Beauly, and stone circles are numerous, as at Inches, Clava, and in the valley of the Ness. Pictish towers or brochs are met with in Glenbeg (Glenelg), and duns (forts) in the Aird and to the west and south-west of Beauly and elsewhere. Among vitrified forts the principal are those on Craig Phadrick, Dundbhairdghall in Glen Nevis, Dun Fionn or Fingal's fort on the Beauly, near Kilmorack, Achterawe in Glengarry and in Arisaig.

See J. Cameron Lees, History of the County of Inverness (Edinburgh, 1897); C. Fraser-Mackintosh, Letters of Two Centuries (Inverness, 1890); Alexander Mackenzie, Histories of the Mackenzies, Camerons, éfc. (Inverness, 1874-1896); A. Stewart, Nether Lochaber (Edinburgh, 1883);~Alexander Carmichael, “ Grazing and Agrestic Customs of the Outer Hebrides " (Crofters' Commission Report, 1884).


INVERSION (Lat. invert ere, to turn about), in chemistry, the name given to the hydrolysis of cane sugar into a mixture of glucose and fructose (invert sugar); it was chosen because the operation was attended by a change from dextro-rotation of polarized light to a laevo-rotation. In mathematics, inversion

is a geometrical method, discovered jointly by Stubbs and Ingram of Dublin, and employed subsequently with conspicuous success by Lord Kelvin in his electrical researches. The notion may be explained thus: If R be a circle of centre O and radius r, and P, Q be two points on a radius such that 0P.OQ=r', then P, Q are said to be inverse points for a circle of radius r, and O is the centre of inversion. If one point, say P, traces a curve, the corresponding locus of Q is said to be the inverse of the path of P. The fundamental propositions are: (1) the inverse of a circle is a line or a circle according as the centre of inversion is on or off the circumference; (2) the angle at the