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we supplying any lack of water in the soil, nor are we restoring the moisture which the earth cannot retain under a burning sun. We irrigate chiefly in the colder and wetter half of the year, and we “saturate” with water the soil in which are growing such plants as are perfectly content with earth not containing more than one-fifth of its weight of moisture. We must look in fact to a number of small advantages and not to any one striking beneficial process in explaining the aggregate utility of water-meadow irrigation. We attribute the usefulness of water-meadow irrigation, then, to the following causes: (1) the temperature of the water being rarely less than 10° Fahr. above freezing, the severity of frosts in winter is thus obviated, and the growth, especially of the roots of grasses, is encouraged; (2) nourishment or plant food is actually brought on to the soil, by which it is absorbed and retained, both for the immediate and for the future use of the vegetation, which also itself obtains some nutrient material directly; (3) solution and redistribution of the plant food already present in the soil occur mainly through the solvent action of the carbonic acid gas present in a dissolved state in the irrigation-water; (4) oxidation of any excess of organic matter in the soil, with consequent production of useful carbonic acid and nitrogen compounds, takes place through the dissolved oxygen in the water sent on and through the soil where the drainage is good; and (5) improvement of the grasses, and especially of the miscellaneous herbage, of the meadow is promoted through the encouragement of some at least of the better species and the extinction or reduction of mosses and of the innutritious weeds.

To the united agency of the above-named causes may safely be attributed the benefits arising from the special form of water-irrigation which is practised in England. Should it be thought that the traces of the more valuable sorts of plant food (such as compounds of nitrogen, phosphates, and potash salts) existing in ordinary brook or river water can never bring an appreciable amount of manurial matter to the soil, or exert an appreciable effect upon the vegetation, yet the quantity of water used during the season must be taken into account. If but 3000 gallons hourly trickle over and through an acre, and if we assume each gallon to contain no more than one-tenth of a grain of plant food of the three sorts just named taken together, still the total, during a season including ninety days of actual irrigation, will not be less than 9 ℔ per acre. It appears, however, that a very large share of the benefits of water-irrigation is attributable to the mere contact of abundance of moving water, of an even temperature, with the roots of the grass. The growth is less checked by early frosts; and whatever advantages to the vegetation may accrue by occasional excessive warmth in the atmosphere in the early months of the year are experienced more by the irrigated than by the ordinary meadow grasses by reason of the abundant development of roots which the water has encouraged.

III. Italian Irrigation.—The most highly developed irrigation in the world is probably that practised in the plains of Piedmont and Lombardy, where every variety of condition is to be found. The engineering works are of a very high class, and from long generations of experience the farmer knows how best to use his water. The principal river of northern Italy is the Po, which rises to the west of Piedmont and is fed not from glaciers like the Swiss torrents, but by rain and snow, so that the water has a somewhat higher temperature, a point to which much importance is attached for the valuable meadow irrigation known as marcite. This is only practised in winter when there is abundance of water available, and it much resembles the water-meadow irrigation of England. The great Cavour canal is drawn from the left bank of the Po a few miles below Turin, and it is carried right across the drainage of the country. Its full discharge is 3800 cub. ft. per second, but it is only from October to May, when the water is least required, that it carries anything like this amount. For the summer irrigation Italy depends on the glaciers of the Alps; and the great torrents of the Dora Baltea and Sesia can be counted on for a volume exceeding 6000 cub. ft. per second. Lombardy is quite as well off as Piedmont for the means of irrigation and, as already said, its canals have the advantage that being drawn from the lakes Maggiore and Como they exercise a moderating influence on the Ticino and Adda rivers, which is much wanted in the Dora Baltea. The Naviglio Grande of Lombardy is a very fine work drawn from the left bank of the Ticino and useful for navigation as well as irrigation. It discharges between 3000 and 4000 cub. ft. per second, and probably nowhere is irrigation carried on with less expense. Another canal, the Villoresi, drawn from the same bank of the Ticino farther upstream, is capable of carrying 6700 cub. ft. per second. Like the Cavour canal, the Villoresi is taken across the drainage of the country, entailing a number of very bold and costly works.

Interesting as these Italian works are, the administration and distribution of the water is hardly less so. The system is due to the ability of the great Count Cavour; what he originated in Piedmont has been also carried out in Lombardy. The Piedmontese company takes over from the government the control of all the irrigation within a triangle between the left bank of the Po and the right bank of the Sesia. It purchases from government about 1250 cub. ft. per second, and has also obtained the control of all private canals. Altogether it distributes about 2275 cub. ft. of water and irrigates about 141,000 acres, on which rice is the most important crop. The association has 14,000 members and controls nearly 10,000 m. of distributary channels. In each parish is a council composed of all landowners who irrigate. Each council sends two deputies to what may be called a water parliament. This assembly elects three small committees, and with them rests the whole management of the irrigation. An appeal may be made to the civil courts from the decision of these committees, but so popular are they that such appeals are never made. The irrigated area is divided into districts, in each of which is an overseer and a staff of watchmen to see to the opening and shutting of the modules (see Hydraulics, §§ 54 to 56) which deliver the water into the minor channels. In the November of each year it is decided how much water is to be given to each parish in the year following, and this depends largely on the number of acres of each crop proposed to be watered. In Lombardy the irrigation is conducted on similar principles. Throughout, the Italian farmer sets a very high example in the loyal way he submits to regulations which there must be sometimes a strong temptation to break. A sluice surreptitiously opened during a dark night and allowed to run for six hours may quite possibly double the value of his crop, but apparently the law is not often broken.

IV. Egypt.—The very life of Egypt depends on its irrigation, and, ancient as this irrigation is, it was never practised on a really scientific system till after the British occupation. As every one knows, the valley of the Nile outside of Character-istics of the Nile Valley and flood. the tropics is practically devoid of rainfall. Yet it was the produce of this valley that formed the chief granary of the Roman Empire. Probably nowhere in the world is there so large a population per square mile depending solely on the produce of the soil. Probably nowhere is there an agricultural population so prosperous, and so free from the risks attending seasons of drought or of flood. This wealth and prosperity are due to two very remarkable properties of the Nile. First, the regimen of the river is nearly constant. The season of its rise and its fall, and the height attained by its waters during the highest flood and at lowest Nile vary to a comparatively small extent. Year after year the Nile rises at the same period, it attains its maximum in September and begins to diminish first rapidly till about the end of December, and then more slowly and more steadily until the following June. A late rise is not more than about three weeks behind an early rise. From the lowest to the highest gauge of water-surface the rise is on an average 25.5 ft. at the First Cataract. The highest flood is 3.5 ft. above this average, and this means peril, if not disaster, in Lower Egypt. The lowest flood on record has risen only to 5.5 ft. below the average, or to 20 ft. above the mean water-surface of low Nile. Such a feeble Nile flood has occurred only