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prosecute the fraudulent guardians who had stripped him of his patrimony. In prospect of such a legal contest, he could have found no better ally than Isaeus. That the young Demosthenes actually resorted to his aid is beyond reasonable doubt. But the pseudo-Plutarch embellishes the story after his fashion. He says that Demosthenes, on coming of age, took Isaeus into his house, and studied with him for four years -paying him the sum of 10,000 drachmas (about £400), on condition that Isaeus should withdraw from a school of rhetoric which he had opened, and devote himself wholly to his new pupil. The real Plutarch gives us a more sober and a more probable version. He simply states that Demosthenes “ employed Isaeus as his master in rhetoric, though Isocrates was then teaching, either (as some say) because he could not pay Isocrates the prescribed fee of ten minae, or because he preferred the style of Isaeus for his purpose, as being 'vigorous and astule" (opaorrjptov Kai 1ravoi}p'yav). It may be observed that, except by the pseudo-Plutarch, a school of Isaeus is not mentioned, -for a notice in Plutarch need mean no more than that he had written a textbook, or that his speeches were read in schools; 1 nor is any other pupil named. As to Demosthenes, his own speeches against Aphobus and Onetor (363~362 B.C.) afford the best possible gauge of the sense and the measure in which he was the disciple of Isaeus; the intercourse between them can scarcely have been either very close or very long. The date at which Isaeus died can only be conjectured from his work; it may be placed about 3 50 B.C.

Isaeus has a double claim on the student of Greek literature. He is the first Greek writer who comes before us as a consummate master of strict forensic controversy. He also holds a most important place in the general development of practical oratory, and therefore in the history of Attic prose. Antiphon marks the beginning of that development, Demosthenes its consummation. Between them stand Lysias and Isaeus. The open, even ostentatious, art of Antiphon had been austere and rigid. The concealed art of Lysias had charmed and persuaded by a versatile semblance of natural grace and simplicity. Isaeus brings us to a final stage of transition, in which the gifts distinctive of Lysias were to be fused into a perfect harmony with that masterly art which receives its most powerful expression in Demosthenes. Here, then, are the two cardinal points by which the place of Isaeus must be determined. We must consider, first, his relation to Lysias; secondly, his relation to Demosthenes. A comparison of Isaeus and Lysias must set out from the distinction between choice of words (Mins) and mode of putting words together (mGv0¢<ns). In choice of words, diction, Lysias and Isaeus are closely alike. Both are clear, pure, simple, concise; both have the stamp of persuasive plainness (6.4>é)ua), and both combine it with graphic power (évdpveta). In mode of putting words together, romposz'tz'on, there is, however a striking difference. Lysias threw off the stiff restraints of the earlier riodic style, with its wooden monotony; he is too fond indeed ofxantithesis always to avoid a rigid effect; but, on the whole, his style is easy, fiexible and various; above all, its subtle art usually succeeds in appearing natural. Now this is just what the art of Isaeus does not achieve. With less love of antithesis than Lysias, and with a diction almost equally pure and plain, he yet habitually conveys the impression of conscious and confident art. Hence he is least effective in adapting his style to those characters in which Lysias peculiarly excelled-the ingenuous youth, the homely and peace-loving citizen. On the other hand, his more open and vigorous art does not interfere with his moral persuasiveness where there is scope for reasoned remonstrance, for keen argument or for powerful denunciation. Passing from the formal to the real side of his work, from diction and composition to the treatment of subject-matter, we find the divergence wider still. Lysias usually adheres to a simple four-fold division-proem, narrative, proof, epilogue. Isaeus frequently interweaves the narrative with the proof? He shows the most dexterous ingenuity in adapting his manifold tactics to the case in hand, and often “ out-generals " (mai-o.¢r1-par-/we?) his adversary by some novel and daring disposition of his forces. Lysias, again, usually contents himself with a merely rhetorical or sketchy- proof; Isaeusaims at strict logical demonstration, worked out through all its steps. As Plut. De glor. Athen. p. 350 C, where he mentions -robs 'Iamfrpiiretr K¢7-f.'A1'TL¢!i)VTGS Kai 'Iuaiovs among -robs év 'rais oxohafs 'rd uftpdxia 7|'P05L5éfUKOV'l'U-S.

2 Here he was probably influenced by the teaching of Isocrates. The forensic speech of Isocrates known as the Aeginelicus (Or. xix.), which belongs to the peculiar province of Isaeus, as dealing with a claim to property (évrtéucaola), affords perhaps the earliest example of narrative and proof thus interwoven. Earlier forensic writers had kept the énjyrjats and 1r£<r-refs distinct, as Lysias does.

Sir William jones well remarks, Isaeus lays close siege to the understandings of the jury.”

Such is the general relation of Isaeus to Lysias. What, we must next ask, is the relation of Isaeus to Demosthenes? The Greek critic who had so carefully studied both authors states his own view in broad terms when he declares that “ the power of Demosthenes took its seeds and its beginnings from Isaeus " (Dion. Halic. Isaeus, 20). A closer examination will show that within certain limits the statement may be allowed. Attic prose expression had been continuously developed as an art; the true link between Isaeus and Demosthenes is technical, depending on their continuity. Isaeus had made some original contributions to the resources of the art; and Demosthenes had not failed to profit by these. The composition of Demosthenes resembles that of Isaeus in blending terse and vigorous periods with passages of more lax and fluent ease, as well as in that dramatic vivacity which is given by rhetorical question and similar devices. In the versatile disposition of subject-matter, the divisions of “ narrative ” and “ proof " being shifted and interwoven according to circumstances, Demosthenes has clearly been instructed by the example of Isaeus. Still more plainly and strikingly is this so in regard to the elaboration of systematic proof; here Demosthenes invites direct and close comparison with Isaeus by his method of drawing out a chain of arguments, or enforcing a proposition by strict legal argument. And, more generally, Demosthenes is the pupil of Isaeus, though here the pupil became even greater than the master, in that faculty of grappling with an adversary's case point by point, in that aptitude for close and strenuous conflict which is expressed by the words éwdw, éva.-y¢iwtos.4

The pseudo-Plutarch, in his life of Isaeus, mentions an Art of Rhetoric and sixty-four speeches, of which fifty were accounted genuine. From a passage of Photius it appears that at least 5 the fifty speeches of recognized authenticity were extant as late as A.D. 850. Only eleven, with a large part of a twelfth, havecome down to us; but the titles of forty-two 6 others are known? The titles of the lost speeches confirm the statement of Dionysius that the speeches of Isaeus were exclusively forensic; and only three titles indicate speeches made in public causes. The remainder, concerned with private causes, may be classed under six heads:- (1) »<}r;pu<oi-cases of claim to an inheritance; (2) é7I'LK)]PLKOi"" cases of claim to the hand of an heiress; (3) étaéumaiat-cases of claim of property; (4) 6.1ro¢r-raaiov-cases of claim to the ownership of a slave; (5) é'y'y{n;s-action brought against a surety whose principal had made default; (6) dv-rw/.ioaia (as=1rapa7pa4>f;)-a special plea; (7) érpeais-appeal from one jurisdiction to another. Eleven of the twelve extant speeches belong. to class (I), the

0~r;pu<o[, or claims to an inheritance. This was probably.the branch

of practice in which Isaeus had done his most important and most characteristic work. And, according to the ancient custom, this class of speeches would therefore stand first in the manuscript collections of his writings. The case of Antiphon is parallel: his speeches in cases of homicide (rpovmoi) were those on which his reputation mainly depended, and stood first in the manuscripts. Their exclusive preservation, like that of the speeches made by Isaeus in will-cases, is thus primarily an accident of manuscript tradition, but partly also the result of the writer's special prestige. Six of the twelve extant speeches are directly concerned with claims to an estate; five others are connected with legal proceedings arising out of such a claim. They may be classified thus (the name given in each case being that of the person whose estate is in dispute): I. Trials of Claim to an Inheritance (étaétnaaiat). I. Or. i., Cleonymus. Date between 360 and 353 B.C. 2. Or. iv., Nicostratus. Date uncertain.

Or. vii., Apollodorus. 353 B.C.

Or. viii., Ciron. 375 B.C.

Or. ix., Astyphilus. 369 B.C. (o. 390, Schomann). 3


6. Or. x., Aristarchu s. 377-371 B.C. (386-384, Schomann). “This is what Dionysius means when he says (Isaeus, 61) that Isaeus differs from Lysias-TQ, uh Kar' ér/60/.n7;.¢a -rf. >é'j/ew &>)&. na-r érrxeipmua. Here the “ enthymeme " means a rhetorical syllogism with one premiss suppressed (curtiirn, ]uv. vi. 449); “ epicheireme, " such a syllogism stated in full. Cf. R. Volkmann, Rhetorik der Griechen und Romer, 1872, pp. 153 f.

fCleon's speech in Thuc. iii. 37, 38, works out this image with remarkable force; within a short space we have ivuéaews ae/¢bu» TLTJV TOLL'iWli€ 6.'yo5vwv-&'yo.>vL¢11'i1s-6.'ywvi§ 'e<10a1.-6.1/1'a'ywvi§ °e¢10a.L*¢i'ywvo-0efe'Ev. See Attic Orators, vol. i. 39; ii. 304.

“For the words of Photius (cod. 263), 'roi/nw 6% oi 'rrl 'yvijfnov papa-vp170évres v' naraheivrowai p.6x/ov, might be so rendered as to imply that, besides these fifty, others also were extant. See Att. Orat. ii. 311, note 2. 6 Forty-four are given in Thalheim's ed. 7 The sezond of our speeches (the Mencclean) was discovered in the Laurentizn Library in 1785, and was edited in that year by Tyrwhitt. In editions previous to that date, Oration i. is made to conclude with a few lines which really belong to the end of Orat. ii. (§ 47, ahh é7|'6L5'f) -rd vrpii/y/.La . . . ¢1j<1>£aaa0e), and this arrangement is followed in the translation of Isaeus by Sir William jones, to whom our second oration, was, of course, then (1779) unknown. In Oration i. all that follows the words pn) -zroujaav-res in § 22 was first published in 1815 by Mai, from a MS. in the Ambrosian Library at Milan.