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Suppose the depths at I., II., III., . . (fig. 149), set off as vertical ordinates in fig. 150, and on these vertical ordinates suppose the velocities set off horizontally at their proper depths. Thus, if v is the measured velocity at the de th h from the surface in fig. 149, on vertical marked III., then at lil. in fig. 150 take cd=h and ac-=v. Then d is a point in the vertical velocity curve for the vertical III., 1 and, all the velocities for that ordinate being similarly set off, the curve can be drawn. Suppose all the vertical velocity curves I .... V. (fig. ISO), thus drawn. On each of these figures draw verticals corresponding to velocities

of x, 2x, 3x ft.

per second. Then for

instance cd at III. (fig.

150) is the depth at

which a velocity of 2x

ft. per second existed

on the vertical III. in

fig. 149 and if cd is set

off at III. in fig. 149 it

gives a point in a curve

passing through points of the section where the velocity was 2x ft. per second. Set off on each of the verticals in fig. 149 all the depths thus found in the corresponding diagram in fig. 150. Curves drawn through the corresponding points on the verticals are curves of equal velocity.

The discharge of the stream per second may be regarded as a solid having the cross section of the river (fig. 149) as a base, and cross 1 II III C rv V

ll, "'f

mi) 1. Ul


out in this way. The upper figure shows the section of the river and the positions of the verticals at which the soundings and gaugings were taken. The lower gives the curves of equal velocity, worked out from the current meter observations, by the aid of vertical velocity curves. The vertical scale in this figure is ten times as great as in the other. The discharge calculated from the contour curves is 14-1087 cubic metres per second. In the lower figure some other interesting curves are drawn. Thus, the uppermost dotted curve is the curve through points at which the maximum velocity was found; it shows that the maximum velocity was always a little below the surface, and at a greater depth at the centre than at the sides. The next curve shows the depth at which the mean velocity for each vertical was found. The next is the curve of equal velocity corresponding to the mean Velocity of the stream; that is, it passes through points in the cross section where the velocity was identical with the mean velocity of the stream. HYDRAULIC MACHINES

§ 152. Hydraulic machines may be broadly divided into two classes: (1) M otors, in which water descending from a higher to a lower level, or from a higher to a lower pressure, gives up energy which is available for mechanical operations; (2) Pumps, in which the energy of a steam engine or other motor is expended in raising Water from a lower to a higher level. A few machines such as the ram and jet pump combine the functions of motor

Le £ bank, ,-

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ju, 'és 'a S §§ § s § g EE $5 s R 2972.1 +03 4-so s-as -/~so 92+ no 1l'82]2~30 144114—8)16'92 11-so 195119-80 22-15 zzeq 24.90 27-so Discharge per Second, = Q= l4~-1087°“b"" <

Curves of eq'uafL velocity,

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FIG. 151.

sections normal to the plane of fig. 149 given by the diagrams in fig. 150. The curves of equal velocity may therefore be considered as contour lines of the solid whose volume is the discharge of the stream per second. Let S20 be the area of the cross section of the river, $21, S22 . . the areas contained by the successive curves of equal velocity, or, if these cut the surface of the stream, by the curves and that surface. Let x be the difference of velocity for which the successive curves are drawn, assumed above for simplicity at 1 ft. per second. Then the volume of the successive layers of the solid body whose volume represents the discharge, limited by successive planes passing through the contour curves, will bc %x(S2o+91). %x(S21+9¢). and S0 On-Consequently the discharge is

Q =xli(9o+9») +91 =0z+ ~~- -l"9»-1}-The areas Qo, S21 . . are easily ascertained by means of the polar planimeter. A slight difficulty arises in the part of the solid lying above the last contour curve. This will have generally a height which is not exactly x, and a form more rounded than the other layers and less like a conical frustum. The volume of this may be gzsgimaaed ieréaaatily, and tkakera to be the area of its base (the area j mu tip ie y 3 to 5 its eig t. 1

Fig. 151 shows the results of one of Harlacher's gaugings worked and pump. It may be noted that constructively pumps are essentially reversed motors. The reciprocating pump is a reversed pressure engine, and the centrifugal pump a reversed turbine. Hydraulic machine tools are in principle motors combined with tools, and they now form an important special class. Water under pressure conveyed in pipes is a convenient and economical means of transmitting energy and distributing it to many scattered working points. Hence large and important hydraulic systems are adopted in which ata central station water is pumped at high pressure into distributing mains, which convey it to various points where it actuates hydraulic motors operating cranes, lifts, dock gates, and in some cases riveting and shearing machines. In this case the head driving the hydraulic machinery is artificially created, and it is the convenience of distributing power in an easily applied form to distant points which makes the system advantageous. As there is some unavoidable loss in creating an artificial head this system

is most suitable for driving machines which work intermittently