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LUCENA—LUCERNE

Frederick William was at that time intriguing with Turkey, then at war with Austria and Russia. Lucchesini was to rouse Polish feeling against Russia, and to secure for Prussia the concourse of Poland in the event of war with Austria and Russia. All his power of intrigue was needed in the conduct of these hazardous negotiations, rendered more difficult by the fact that Prussian policy excluded the existence of a strong Polish government. A Prusso-Polish alliance was concluded in March 1790. Lucchesini had been sent in January of that year to secure the alliance of Saxony against Austria, and in September he was sent to Sistova, where representatives of the chief European powers were engaged in settling the terms of peace between Austria and Turkey, which were finally agreed upon on the 4th of August 1791. Before he returned to Warsaw the Polish treaty of which he had been the chief author had become a dead letter owing to the engagements made between Prussia and Austria at Reichenbach in July 1790, and Prussia was already contemplating the second partition of Poland. He was recalled at the end of 1791, and in July 1792 he joined Frederick William in the invasion of France. He was to be Prussian ambassador in Paris when the allied forces should have reinstated the authority of Louis XVI. He was opposed alike to the invasion of France and the Austrian alliance, but his prepossessions did not interfere with his skilful conduct of the negotiations with Kellermann after the allies had been forced to retire by Dumouriez's guns at Valmy, nor with his success in securing the land grave of Hesse-Darmstadt's assistance against France. In 1793 he was appointed ambassador to Vienna, with the ostensible object of securing financial assistance for the Rhenish campaign. He accompanied Frederick William through the Polish campaign of 1793-94, and in the autumn returned to Vienna. His anti-Austrian bias made him extremely unpopular with the Austrian court, which asked in vain for his recall in 1795. In 1797, after a visit to Italy in which he had an interview with Napoleon at Bologna, these demands were renewed and acceded to. In 1800 he was sent by Frederick William III. on a special mission to Paris. Despatches in which he expressed his distrust of Bonaparte's peaceful professions and his conviction of the danger of the continuance of a neutral policy were intercepted by the first consul, who sought his recall, but eventually accepted him as regular ambassador (1802). He consistently sought friendly relations between France and Prussia, but he warned his government in 1806 of Napoleon's intention of restoring Hanover to George III. and of Murat's aggressions in Westphalia. He was superseded as ambassador in. Paris in September just before the outbreak of war. After the disaster of Jena on the 14th of October he had an interview with Duroc near Wittenberg to seek terms of peace. After two unsuccessful attempts at negotiation, the first draft being refused by Napoleon, the second by Frederick William, he joined the Prussian court at Konigsberg only to learn that his services were no longer required. He then joined the court of Elisa, grand duchess of Tuscany, at Lucca and Florence, and after Napoleon's fall devoted himself to writing. He died on the 20th of October 1825.

His published in 1819 three volumes, Sulle cause et gli ejetti della cunfederazione rhenana, at Florence, but revealed little that was not already available in printed sources. His memoirs remained in MS. His dispatches are edited by Bailleu in Preurren und Frankreich (Leipzig, 1887, Publikalionen aus den preussischen Staatsarchiven).


LUCENA, a town of southern Spain, in the province of Cordova, 37 m. S.S.E. of Cordova, on the Madrid-Algeciras railway. Pop. (1900) 21,179. Lucena is situated on the Cascajar, a minor tributary of the Genil. The parish church dates from the beginning of the 16th century. The chief industries are the manufacture of matches, brandy, bronze lamps and pottery, especially the large earthenware jars (tinajas) used throughout Spain for the storage of oil and wine, some of which hold more than 300 gallons. There is considerable trade in agricultural produce, and the horse fair is famous throughout Andalusia. Lucena was taken from the Moors early in the 14th century; it was in the attempt to recapture it that King Boabdil of Granada was taken prisoner in 1483.


LUCERA, a town and episcopal see of Apulia, Italy, 12½ m. W.N.W. by rail of Foggia. Pop. (1901) 16,962. It is situated upon a lofty plateau, the highest point of which (823 ft.), projecting to the W., was the ancient citadel, and is occupied by the well-preserved castle erected by Frederick II., and rebuilt by Pierre d'Angicourt about 1280. The cathedral, originally Romanesque, but restored after 1300 is in the Gothic style; the façade is good, and so is the ciborium. The interior was restored in 1882. The town occupies the site of the ancient Luceria, the key of the whole country. According to tradition the temple of Minerva, founded by Diomede, contained the Trojan Palladium, and the town struck numerous bronze coins; but in history it is first heard of as on the Roman side in the Samnite Wars (321 B.C.), and in 315 or 314 B.C. a Latin colony was sent here. It is mentioned in subsequent military history, and its position on the road from Beneventum, via Aecae (mod. Troja) to Sipontum, gave it some importance. Its wool was also renowned. It now contains no ancient remains above ground, though several mosaic pavements have been found and there are traces of the foundations of an amphitheatre outside the town on the E. The town-hall contains a statue of Venus, a mosaic and some inscriptions (but cf. Th. Mommsen's remarks on the local neglect of antiquities in Corp. Inscr. Lat. ix. 75). In 663 it was destroyed by Constans II., and was only restored in 1223 by Frederick II., who transported 20,000 Saracens hither from Sicily. They were at first allowed religious freedom, but became Christians under compulsion in 1300. Up to 1806 Lucera was the capital of the provinces of Basilicata and Molise.  (T. As.) 


LUCERNE (Ger. Luzern; Ital. Lucerne), one of the cantons of central Switzerland. Its total area is 579-3 sq. m., of which 530-2 sq. in. are classed as “productive ” (forests covering I2O'4 sq. m., and vineyards -04 sq. m.). It contains no glaciers or eternal snows, its highest points being the Brienzer Rothhorn (7714 ft.) and Pilatus (6995 ft.), while the Rothstock summit (5453 ft.) and the Kaltbad inn, both on the Rigi, are included in the canton, the loftiest point of the Rigi range (the Kulm) being entirely in Schwyz. The shape of the canton is an irregular quadrilateral, due to the gradual acquisition of rural districts by the town, which is its historical centre. The northern portion, about 15% sq. m., of the Lake of Lucerne is in the canton. Its chief river is the Reuss, which Hows through it for a short distance only receiving the Kleine Emme that Hows down through the Entlebuch. In the northern part the Wigger, the Suhr and the Wynen streams How through shallow valleys, separated by low hills. The canton is fairly well supplied with railways. The lakes of Sempach and Baldegg are wholly within the canton, which also takes in small portions of those of Hallwil and of Zug. In 1900 the population numbered 146,519, of which 143,337 were German-speaking, 2204 Italian-speaking and 747 Frenchspeaking, while 134,020 were Romanists, 12,085 Protestants and 319 Jews. Its capital is Lucerne (q.11.); the other towns are Kriens (pop. 5951), Willisau (4131), Ruswil (3928), Littau (3699), Emmen (3162) and Escholzmatt (3127). The peasants are a fine race, and outside the chief centres for foreign visitors have retained much of their primitive simplicity of manners and many local costumes. In the Entlebuch particularly the men are of a robust type, and are much devoted to wrestling and other athletic exercises. That district is mainly pastoral and is famous for its butter and cheese. Elsewhere in the canton the pastoral industry (including swine-breeding) is more extended than agriculture, while chiefly in and around Lucerne there are a number of industrial establishments. The induslrie des éirangers is greatly developed in places frequented by foreign visitors. The population as a whole is Conservative in politics and devotedly Romanist in religion. But owing to the settlement of many non-Lucerne hotel-keepers and their servants in the town of Lucerne the capital is politically Radical.

The canton ranks officially third in the Swiss confederation next after Zürich and Bern. It was formerly in the diocese ot Constance, and is now in that of Basel. It contains 5 administrative districts and 107 communes. The existing cantonal