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the irregularity of its shape. It is, in fact, composed of four main basins (with two side basins), which represent four different valleys, orographically distinct, and connected only by narrow and tortuous channels. There is, first, the most easterly basin, the Bay of U ri, extending from F liielen on the south to Brunnen on the north. At Brunnen the great delta of the Muota forces the lake to the west, so that it forms the Bay of Gersau or the GuU of Buochs, extending from the promontory of Seelisberg (E.) to that of the Burgenstock (W.). Another narrow strait between the two “ N oses ” (N asen) leads westwards to the Basin of Weggis, enclosed between the Rigi (N .) and the Btirgenstock promontory (S.). This last named bay forms the eastern arm of what is called the Cross of Lucerne, the Western arm of which is formed by the Bay of Lucerne, while the northern arm is the Bay of Kiissnacht and the southern that of H ergiswil, prolonged S.W. by the Bay of Alpnach, with which it is joined by a very narrow channel, spanned by the Acher iron bridge. The Bay of Uri offers the sternest scenery, but is the most interesting, by reason of its Connexion with early Swiss history-at Brunnen the Everlasting League of 1315 was really made, while the legendary place of meeting of the founders of Swiss freedom was the meadow of the Riitli on the west (purchased by the Confederation in 1859), and the site of Tell's leap is marked by the Chapel of Tell (E.). Nearly opposite Brunnen, close to the west shore, an isolated rock (the Schillerstein or M y then stein) now bears an inscription in honour of Friedrich Schiller, the author of the famous play of William Tell (1804). In the Bay of Gersau the most interesting spot is the village of Gersau (N.), which formed an independent republic from I3QO to 1798, but in 1818 was finally united to the canton of Schwyz. In the next basin to the west is Weggis (N.), also for long in the middle ages a small independent state; to the S.E. of Weggis, on the north shore of the lake, is Vitznau, whence a rack railway (1871) leads up to the top of the Rigi (4;}~ 1n.), while S.W. of Weggis, on the south shore of the lake, is Kehrsiten, whence an electric railway leads up to the great hotels on the Biirgenstock promontory (2854 ft.). The town of Lucerne is connected with Fliielen by the main line of the St Gotthard railway (32 m.), though only portions of this line (from Lucerne to Kiissnacht, 10% m., and from Brunnen to Fliielen, 7 m.) run along the shore; Brunnen is also connected with Fltielen by the splendid carriage road known as the Axenstrasse (7i- m.) and is the starting-point of an electric line (1905) up to Morschach (S.E.) and the great hotels of Axenstein and Axenfels near it. On the promontory between Lucerne and Kiissnacht stands the castle of New Habsburg (modern), while from Kiissnacht a carriage road leads through the remains of the “ Hollow Way ” (H ohle Gasse), the scene of the legendary murder of Gessler by William Tell. The west shore of the southern arm, or the basin of Hergiswil and the Bay of Alpnach, is traversed from Horw to Alpnachstad by the Briinig railway (53% m.), which continues towards Sarnen (Obwalden) and the Bernese Oberland, S.W. from Alpnachstad, whence a rack railway leads N .W. up Pilatus (2§ m.), Opposite Hergiswil, but on the east shore of the Basin of Hergiswil, is Stanstad, the port of Stans (Nidwalden), which is connected by an electric line with Engelberg (14 The first steamer was placed on the lake in 183 5. Lucerne is the only town of importance, but several spots serve as ports for neighbouring towns or large villages (Brunnen for Schwyz, Fltielen for Altdorf, Stanstad for Stans, Alpnachstad for Sarnen). Most of the villages on the shores are frequented in summer by visitors (Gersau also in winter), especially Hertenstein, Weggis, Gersau, Brunnen, Beckenried and Hergiswil, while great hotels, commanding magnificent views, have been built on heights above it, such as the Biirgenstock, Seelisberg, and near Morschach, above Brunnen, besides those on the Rigi, Pilatus and the Stanserhorn. The area of the lake is about 44% sq.-m., its length about 24 m., its greatest width only 2 m. and its greatest depth 702 ft., while the surface of the water is 1434 ft. above sea-level. Of the total area about 1 5% sq. m. are in the Canton of Lucerne, I3 sq. m. in that of Nidwalden, 7% sq. m. in that of Uri, 7% sq. m. in that of Schwyz, and about 1 sq. m. in that of Obwalden. (W. A. B. C.)

LUCERNE, PURPLE MEDICK or ALFALFA, known botanically as M edieago sativa, a plant of the natural order Leguminosae. In England it is still commonly called “ lucerne, " but in America “ alfalfa, ” an Arabic term (“ the best fodder ”), which, owing to its increasing cultivation in the western hemisphere, has come into widening usage since the introduction of the plant by the Spaniards. It is an erect perennial herb with a branched hollow stem 1 to 2 ft. high, trifoliolate leaves, short dense racemes of small yellow, blue or purple flowers, and downy pods coiled two or three times in a loose

spiral. It has a characteristic

long tap-root, often extending 1 5 ft..or more into the soil. It is

a native of the eastern Mediterranean region, but was introduced

into Italy in the 1st

century A.D., and has become

more widely naturalized in

Europe; it occurs wild in hedges

and fields in Britain, where it

was first cultivated about 16 50.

It seems to have been taken

from Spain to Mexico and South

America in the 16th century,

but the extension of its cultivation in the Western States of

the American Union practically

dates from the middle of the

19th century, and in Argentina

its development as a staple crop

is more recent. It is much cultivated as a forage crop in France

and other parts of the continent

of Europe, but has not come

into such general use in Britain,

where, however, it is frequently

met with in small patches in

districts where the soil is very

light, with a dry subsoil. Its

thick tap-roots penetrate very

deeply into the soil; and, if a

good cover is once obtained, the

plants will yield abundant cut"i"») A,


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Lucerne (Medicago sativa), é nat.


1, Flower, enlarged.

2, Half-ripe fruit, % nat. size.

3, Fruit, enlarged.

tings of herbage for eight or ten years, provided they are properly top-dressed and kept free from perennial weeds. The time te cut it is, as with clover and sainfoin, when it is in early flower. In the United States alfalfa has become the staple leguminous forage crop throughout the western half of the country. Some idea of the increase in its cultivation may be obtained from the figures for Kansas, where in 1891 alfalfa was cultivated over 34,384 acres, while in 1907 the number was 743,050. The progress of irrigation has been an important factor in many districts. The plant requires a well-drained soil (deep and permeable as possible), rich in lime and reasonably free from weeds. See, for practical directions as to cultivate0n, 'Farmers' Bulletin 339 of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, by ]. M. Westgate (Washington, December 1908).

LUCHAIRE, DENIS JEAN ACHILLE (1846–1908), French historian, was born in Paris on the 24th of October 1846. In 1879 he became a professor at Bordeaux and in 1889 professor of medieval history at the Sorbonne; in 1895 he became a member of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques, where he obtained the Jean Reynaud prize just before his death on the 14th of November 1908. The rnost important of Achille Luchaire's earlier works is his Histoire des institutions monarchiques la France sous les premiers Capétiens (1883 and again 1891); he also wrote a Manuel des institutions françaises: period des Capétiens directs (1892); Louis VI. le Gros, annales de sa vie et de son règne (1890); and Étude sur les actes de Louis VII. (1885). His later writings deal mainly with the history of the papacy, and took the form of an elaborate work on Pope Innocent III. This is divided into six parts: (i.) Rome et Italie