maintainer of the Johannine authorship of the Fourth Gospel; in connexion with this thesis he was one of the first to argue for the early date and non-apostolic authorship of the Apocalypse. His Einleitung in die Offenbarung Johannis was published in 1832 (2nd ed., 1848–1852). He also published a Synopsis Evangeliorum, conjointly with W. M. L. de Wette (1818, 2nd ed., 1840). See Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopädie.
LUCKENWALDE, a town in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on the Nuthe, 30 m. S. of Berlin, on the main line to Dresden and Leipzig. Pop. (1905) 22,263. Its cloth and wool manufactories are among the most extensive in Prussia. Among its other industries are cotton printing and dye works, brewing, and the making of metal and bronze goods.
The site of Luckenwalde was occupied in the 12th century by a Cistercian monastery, but the village did not spring up till the reign of Frederick the Great. It was made a town in 1808.
LUCKNOW, a city, district and division of British India. The city was the capital of Oudh from 1775 until it was merged in the United Provinces in 1901. Pop. (1901) 264,049. It lies mainly on the right bank of the winding river Gumti, which is crossed by two railway and three road bridges. It contains the Canning college (1864), with an Oriental department, and La Martinière college, where about 100 boys are educated, the institution being in part supported by an endowment left by General Claude Martin in 1800. There are native manufactures of gold and silver brocade, muslins, embroidery, brass and copper wares, pottery and moulding in clay. There are also important European industrial establishments, such as iron-works and paper-mills. Lucknow is the centre of the Oudh and Rohilkhand railway system, with large workshops. Lines radiate to Cawnpore, Bareilly, Gonda, Fyzabad and Rae Bareli. Lucknow is the headquarters of the 8th division of the northern army. The cantonments are situated 3 m. E. of the city.
Lucknow is chiefly notable in the history of British India as the capital of the nawabs who had dealings with Warren Hastings, and their successors the kings of Oudh, whose deposition by Lord Dalhousie was one of the chief causes of the Mutiny. Amongst the events of the Mutiny the defence of the residency of Lucknow comes only second in historic interest to the massacre at Cawnpore itself. For the two sieges, see Indian Mutiny. The name of the residency is now applied not only to the residency itself, but to the whole of the outbuildings and entrenchments in which Sir Henry Lawrence concentrated his small force. These entrenchments covered almost 60 acres of ground, and consisted of a number of detached houses, public edifices, outhouses and casual buildings, netted together, and welded by ditches, parapets, stockades and batteries into one connected whole. On the summit of the plateau stands the residency proper, the official residence of the chief commissioner, a lofty building three storeys high, with a fine portico. Near the residency comes the banqueting hall, and beyond the Baillie Guardgate lie the ruins of the surgeon’s house, where Sir Henry Lawrence died of a shell-wound, and where the ladies of the garrison were sheltered in underground rooms. Round the line of the entrenchments are pillars marked with the name of the various “posts” into which the garrison was distributed. The most dangerous of these was the Cawnpore battery post, where the stockade was directly exposed to the enemy’s fire. The mutineers had rifles fixed in rests in the house opposite, and swept the road that led through the residency enclosure at this point. Close to the residency is the Lawrence Memorial, an artificial mound 30 ft. high crowned by a marble cross.
Among the other buildings of interest in Lucknow is the Imambara, which is one of the largest rooms in the world (162 ft. by 54), having an arched roof without supports. This room was built by the Nawab Asaf-ud-dowlah in 1784, to afford relief to the famine-stricken people. The many monuments of his reign include his country palace of Bibiapur, outside the city. Among later bulldings are the two palaces of Chhattar Manzil, erected for the wives of Ghazi-ud-din Haidar (1814), the remains of the Farhat Baksh, dating from the previous reign, and adjoining the greater Chhattar Manzil, the observatory (now a bank) of Nasir-ud-din Haidar (1827), the imambara or mausoleum and the unfinished great mosque (Jama Masjid) of Mahommed Ali Shah (1837), and the huge debased Kaisar Bagh, the palace of Wajid Ali Shah (1847–1856).
The District of Lucknow lies on both sides of the river Gumti, and has an area of 967 sq. m. Its general aspect is that of an open champaign, well studded with villages, finely wooded and in parts most fertile and highly cultivated. In the vicinity of rivers, however, stretch extensive barren sandy tracts (bhúr), and there are many wastes of saline efflorescence (usár). The country is an almost dead level, the average slope, which is from N.W. to S.E., being less than a foot per mile. The principal rivers are the Gumti and the Sai with their tributaries. The population in 1901 was 793,241, showing an increase of 2.5% in the preceding decade.
The Division of Lucknow contains the western half of the old province of Oudh. It comprises the six districts of Lucknow, Unao, Sitapur, Rae Bareli, Hardoi and Kheri. Its area is 12,051 sq. m. and its population in 1901 was 5,977,086, showing an increase of 2.06% in the decade.
See Lucknow District Gazetteer (Allahabad, 1904). For a fuller description of the city see G. W. Forrest, Cities of India (1903).
LUÇON, a town of western France, in the department of Vendée, 23 m. S.E. of La Roche-sur-Yon, on the railway from Nantes to Bordeaux, and on the canal of Luçon (9 m. long), which affords communication with the sea in the Bay of Aiguillon. Pop. (1906) 6163. Between Luçon and the sea stretch marshy plains, the bed of the former gulf, partly drained by numerous canals, and in the reclaimed parts yielding excellent pasturage, while in other parts are productive salt-marshes, and ponds for the rearing of mussels and other shell-fish. Luçon is the seat of a bishopric, established in 1317, and held by Richelieu from 1607 to 1624. The cathedral, partly of the 12th-century and partly of later periods, was originally an abbey church. The façade and the clock tower date from about 1700, and the tower is surmounted by a crocketed spire rising 275 ft. above the ground, attributed to the architect François Leduc of Tuscany. The cloisters are of the late 15th century. Adjacent is the bishop’s palace, possessing a large theological library and Titian’s “Disciples of Emmaus,” and there is a fine public garden. A communal college and an ecclesiastical seminary are among the public institutions. During the Vendean wars, Luçon was the scene of several conflicts, notably in 1793.
LUCRE (Lat. lucrum, gain; the Indo-European root is seen in Gr. ἀπολάυειν, to enjoy, and in Ger. Lohn, wages), a term now only used in the disparaging sense of unworthy profit, or money that is the object of greed, especially in the expression “filthy lucre” (1 Tim. iii. 3). In the adjective “lucrative,” profitable, there is, however, no sense of disparagement. In Scots law the term “lucrative succession” (lucrativa acquisitio) is used of the taking by an heir, during the lifetime of his ancestor, of a free grant of any part of the heritable property.
LUCRETIA, a Roman lady, wife of Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, distinguished for her beauty and domestic virtues. Having been outraged by Sextus Tarquinius, one of the sons of Tarquinius Superbus, she informed her father and her husband, and, having exacted an oath of vengeance from them, stabbed herself to death. Lucius Junius Brutus, her husband’s cousin, put himself at the head of the people, drove out the Tarquins, and established a republic. The accounts of this tradition in later writers present many points of divergence.
LUCRETILIS MONS, a mountain of the Sabine territory, mentioned by Horace (Od. i. 17, 1) as visible from his Sabine farm, and probably identical with the “Mons Lucretius” mentioned in the Liber Pontificalis (ed. Duchesne, i. 183), which speaks of “possessio in territorio Sabinensi quae cognominatur ad duas casas sub monte Lucretio” in the time of Constantine. The name “ad duas casas” is supposed to survive in the chapel of the Madonna della Casa near Rocca Giovane, and the Mons Lucretilis is generally (and rightly) identified with Monte Gennaro, a limestone peak 4160 ft. high, which forms a prominent feature in the view N.E. of Rome. Excavations on the supposed site of Horace’s farm were begun by Professor Pasqui in September 1909. (T. As.)