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LUCUS FERONIAE—LÜDENSCHEID

Having enjoyed a triumph, he was sent out to the East to settle the atiairs of the provinces conquered by his brother. He sided with Cicero during the Catilinarian conspiracy, did his utmost to prevent his banishment, and subsequently supported his claim for the restoration of his house. He was one of the better representatives of the optimates, and enjoyed some reputation as an orator.

See Cicero, De Dorno, 52; Pro Tullio, 8; In Verrem, iii. 70, V. 21; Florus, iii. 4, 7; Ammianus Marcellinus xxvii. 4, II; Plutarch, Sulla, 27; Lucullus, 35, 36, 43; Orelli's Onornasticon Tullianurn.


LUCUS FERONIAE, an ancient shrine in Etruria. It was visited both by Latins and Sabines even in the time of Tullus Hostilius and was plundered by Hannibal in 211 B.C. It was undoubtedly in the territory of Capena (q.v.); but in imperial times it became an independent community receiving a colony of Octavian's veterans (Colonia Iulia felix Lucoferensis) and possessing an amphitheatre. Its site has been disputed. Some authorities place it on the Colle Civitucola (but see Capena), others at the church of S. Abbondio near Rignano, others (and probably rightly) at Nazzano, which was reached by a branch road from the Via Flaminia, where remains of a circular temple have been found.

See E. Bormann in Corp. Inscr. Lat. xi. 569 sqq.; H. Nissen, Italische Landeskunde, ii. 369 sqq.  (T. As.) 


LUCY, RICHARD DE (d. 1179), called the “loyal,” chief justiciar of England, appears in the latter part of Stephen's reign as sheriff and justiciar of the county of Essex. He became, on the accession of Henry II., chief justiciar conjointly with Robert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester; and after the death of the latter (1168) held the office without a colleague for twelve years. The chief servant and intimate of the king he was among the first of the royal party to incur excommunication in the Becket controversy. In 1173 he played an important part in suppressing the rebellion of the English barons, and commanded the royalists at the battle of F ornham. He resigned the justiciarship in 1179, though pressed by the king to continue in office, and retired to Lesues Abbey in Kent, which he had founded and where he died. Lucy's son, Godfrey de Lucy (d. IZO4), was bishop of Winchester from 1189 to his death in September 1204; he took a prominent part in public afiairs during the reigns of Henry II., Richard I. and John.

See ]. H. Round, Geofrey de Mandeville (1892); Sir ]. H. Ramsay, Angevin Empire (1903); and W. Stubbs, Constitutional History, vol. i.


LUCY, SIR THOMAS (1532-1600), the English Warwickshire squire who is traditionally associated with the youth of William Shakespeare, was born on the 24th of April 1532, the son of William Lucy, and was descended, according to Dugdale, from Thurstane de Cherlecote, whose son Walter received the village of Charlecote from Henry de Montfort about 1190. Walter is said to have married into the Anglo-Norman family of Lucy, and his son adopted the mother's surname. Three of Sir Thomas Lucy's ancestors had been sheriffs of Warwickshire and Leicestershire, and on his father's death in 1552 he inherited Sherborne and Hampton Lucy in addition to Charlecote, which was rebuilt for him by John of Padua, known as John Thorpe, about 1558. By his marriage with Joyce Acton he inherited Sutton Park in 'Worcestershire, and became in 1 586 high sheriff of the county. He was knighted in 1565. He is said to have been under the tutorship of John Foxe, who is supposed to have imbued his pupil with the Puritan principles which he displayed as knight of the shire for Warwick in the parliament of 1571 and as sheriff of the county, but as Mrs Carmichael Stopes points out Foxe only left Oxford in 1545, and in 1547 went up to London, so that the connexion must have been short. He often appeared at Stratford-on-Avon as justice of the peace and as commissioner of musters for the county. As justice of the peace he showed great zeal against the Catholics, and took his share in the arrest of Edward Arden in 1583. In 1585 he introduced into parliament a bill for the better preservation of game and grain, and his reputation as a preserver of game gives some colour to the Shakespearian tradition connected with his name. Nicholas Rowe, writing in 1710, toldastory that Lucy prosecuted Shakespeare for deer-s*ealing from Charlecote Park in 1585, and that Shakespeare aggravated the offence by writing a ballad on his prosecutor. The trouble arising from this incident is said to have driven Shakespeare from Stratford to London. The tale was corroborated by Archdeacon Davies of Sapperton, Gloucestershire, who died in 1708. The story is not necessarily falsihed by the fact that there was no deer park at Charlecote at the time, since there was a warren, and the term warren legally covers a preserve for other animals than hares or rabbits, roe-deer among others. Shakespeare is generally supposed to have caricatured the local magnate of Stratford in his portrait of Justice Shallow, who made his first appearance in the second part of Henry IV., and a second in the Merry Wives of Windsor. Robert Shallow is a justice of the peace in the county of Gloucester and his ancestors have the dozen white luces in their coats, the arms of the Lucys being three luces, while in Dugdale's Warwickshire (ed. 1656) there is drawn a coat-of-arms in which these are repeated in each of the four quarters, making twelve in all. There are many considerations which make it unlikely that Shallow represents Lucy, the chief being the noteworthy difference in their circumstances. Lucy died at Charlecote on the 7th of July 1600. His grandson, Sir Thomas Lucy (1585-1640), was a friend of Lord Herbert of Cherbury, and was eulogized by John Davies of Hereford in 1610. The Charlecote estates eventually passed to the Rev. John Hammond through his marriage with Alice Lucy, and in 1789 he adopted the name of Lucy.

For a detailed account of Sir Thomas Lucy, with his son and grandson of the same name, see Mrs C. Carmichael Stopes, Shakespeareis Warwickshire Contemporaries (2nd ed., 1907). Cf. also an article by Mrs Stopes in the Fortnightly Review (Feb. I§ 03)» entitled “ Sir Thomas Lucy not the Original of justice Shallow, " and J. O. Halliwéeél-Phillipps, Observations on the Charlecote Traditions (Brighton, 1887).


LUDDITES, the name given to organized bands of English rioters for the destruction of machinery, who made their first appearance in Nottingham and the neighbouring districts towards the end of 1811. The origin of the name is given in Pellew's Life of Lord Sidmouth (iii. 80). In 1779 there lived in a village in Leicestershire a person of weak intellect, called Ned Ludd, who was the butt of the boys of the village. On one occasion Ludd pursued one of his tormentors into a house where were two of the frames used in stocking manufacture, and, not being able to catch the boy, vented his anger on the frames. Afterwards, whenever any frames were broken, it became a common saying that Ludd had done it. The riots arose out of the severe distress caused by the war with France. The leader of the riotous bands took the name of “ General Ludd.” The riots were specially directed against machinery because of the widespread prejudice that its use produced a scarcity in the demand for labour. Apart from this prejudice, it was inevitable that the economic and social revolution implied in the change from manual labour to work by machinery should give rise to great misery. The riots began with the destruction of stocking and lace frames, and, continuing through the winter and the following spring, spread into Yorkshire, Lancashire, Derbyshire and Leicestershire. They were met by severe repressive legislation, introduced by Lord Liverpool's government, a notable feature in the opposition to, which was Lord Byron's speech in the House of Lords. In 1816 the rioting was resumed, caused by the depression which followed the peace of 181 5 and aggravated by one of the worst of recorded harvests. In that year, although the centre of the rioting' was again in Nottingham, it extended over almost the whole kingdom. The rioters were also thoroughly organized. While part of the band destroyed the machinery, sentinels were posted to give warning of the approach of the military. Vigorous repressive measures, and, especially, reviving prosperity, brought the movement to an end.

See G. Pellew, Lie and Correspondence of H. Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth (ondon, 1847); Spencer Walpole, History of England, vol. i. (London, 1890); and the Annual Register for 1811, 1812 and 1816.


LUDENSCHEID, a town in the Prussian province of Westphalia, 19' m. by rail S.S.E. of Hagen. Pop. (1905) 28,92I. It