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LUDLOW—LUDOLF

St Martin. Over the door of the house in which he lived was placed the inscription “ Omne solum forti patria, quia Patris." Ludlow married Elizabeth, daughter 'of William Thomas, of Wenvoe, Glamorganshire, but left no issue.

His Memoirs, extending to the year 1672, were published in 1698-1699 at Vevey and have been often reprinted; a new edition, with notes and illustrative material and introductory memoir, was issued by C. H. Firth in 1894. They are strongly partisan, but the picture of the times is lifelike and realistic. Ludlow also published “ a letter from Sir Hardress Waller . . to Lieutenant-General Ludlow with his answer " (1660), in defence of his conduct in Ireland. See C. H. Firth's article in Dict. Nat. Biog.; Guizot's Monk's Contemporaries; A. Stein's Briefe Englischer Fluchtlinge in der Schweiz.


LUDLOW, a market town and municipal borough in the Ludlow parliamentary division of Shropshire, England, on the Hereford-Shrewsbury joint line of the Great Western and London & North Western railways, 162 m. W.N.W. from London. Pop. (1901) 4552. It is beautifully situated at the junction of the rivers Teme and Corve, upon and about a wooded eminence crowned by a massive ruined castle. Parts of this castle date from the 11th century, but there are many additions such as the late Norman circular chapel, the Decorated state rooms, and details in Perpendicular and Tudor styles. The parish church of St Lawrence is a cruciform Perpendicular building, with a lofty central tower, and a noteworthy east window, its 15th-century glass showing the martyrdom of St Lawrence. There are many fine half-timbered houses of the 17th century, and one of seven old town-gates remains. The grammar school, founded in the reign of John, was incorporated by Edward I. The principal public buildings are the guildhall, town-hall and market-house, and public rooms, which include a museum of natural history. Tanning and fiour-milling are carried on. The town is governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area 416 acres.

The country neighbouring Ludlow is richly wooded and hilly, while the scenery of the Teme is exquisite. Westward, Vinnal Hill reaches 1235 ft., eastward lies Titterstone Clee (1749 ft.). Richard's Castle, 3 m. S. on the borders of Herefordshire, dates from the reign of Edward the Confessor, but little more than its great artificial mound remains. At Bromfield, 3 m. above Ludlow on the Teme, the church and some remains of domestic buildings belonged to a Benedictine monastery of the 12th century.

Ludlow is supposed to have existed under the name of Dinan in the time of the Britons. Eyton in his history of Shropshire identifies it with one of the “ Ludes ” mentioned in the Domesday Survey, which was held by Roger de Lacy of Osbern FitzRichard and supposes that Roger built the castle soon after IO86, while a chronicle of the FitzWarren family attributes the castle to Roger earl of Shrewsbury; The manor afterwards belonged to the Lacys, and in the beginning of the 14th century passed by marriage to Roger de Mortimer and through him to Edward IV. Ludlow was a borough by prescription in the 13th century, but the burgesses owe most of their privileges to their allegiance to the house of York. Richard, duke of York, in 1450 confirmed their government by 12 burgesses and 24 assistants, and Edward IV. on his accession incorporated them under the title of bailiffs and burgesses, granted them the town at a fee-farm of £24, 35. 4d., a merchant gild and freedom from toll. Several confirmations of this charter were granted; the last, dated 1665, continued in force (with a short interval in the reign of James II.) until the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835. By the charter of Edward IV. Ludlow returned 2 members to parliament, but in 1867 the number was reduced to one, and in 1885 the town was disfranchised. The market rights are claimed by the corporation under the charters of Edward IV. (1461) and Edward VI. (1552). The court of the Marches was established at Ludlow in the reign of Henry VII., and continued to be held here until it was abolished in the reign of William III. Ludlow castle was granted by Edward IV. to his two sons, and by Henry VII. to Prince Arthur, who died here in 1502. In 1634 Milton's Comus was performed in the castle under its original style of “A Masque presented at Ludlow Castle, ” before the earl of Bridgewater, Lord President of Wales. The castle was garrisoned in 1642 by Prince Rupert, who went there after the battle of Naseby, but in 1646 it surrendered to Parliament and was afterwards dismantled.

See Victoria County History, Shropshire; Thomas Wright, The History of Ludlow and its Neighbourhood (1826).


LUDLOW GROUP, or Ludlovian, in geology, the uppermost subdivision of the Silurian rocks in Great Britain. This group contains the following formations in descending order:—Tilestones, Downton Castle sandstones (90 ft.), Ledbury shales (270 ft.), Upper Ludlow rocks (140 ft.), Aymestry limestone (up to 40 ft.), Lower Ludlow rocks (350 to 780 ft.). The Ludlow group is essentially shaly in character, except towards the top, where the beds become more sandy and pass gradually into the base of the Old Red Sandstone. The Aymestry limestone, which is irregular in thickness, is sometimes absent, and where the underlying Wenlock limestones are absent the shales of the Ludlow group graduate downwards into the Wenlock shales. The group is typically developed between Ludlow and Aymestry, and it occurs also in the detached Silurian areas between Dudley and the mouth of the Severn.

The Lower Ludlow rocks are mainly grey, greenish and brown mud stones and sandy and calcareous shales. They contain an abundance of fossils. The series has been zoned by means of the graptolites by E. M. R. Wood; the following in ascending order, are the zonal forms: Monograptus vulgaris, M. Nilssoni, M. scanicus, M. tumescent and M. leintwardinensis. Cyathaspis ludensis, the earliest British vertebrate fossil, was found in these rocks at Leintwardine in Shropshire, a noted fossil locality. Trilobites are numerous (Phacops caudatus, Lichas anglicus, Homolonotus delphinocephalus, Calymene Blumenbachii); brachiopods (Leptaena rhomboidal is, Rhynchonella Wilsoni, Atrypa reticularis), pelecypods (Cardiola interrupt, Ctenodonta sulcata) and asteropods and cephalopods (many species of Orthoceras and also Gomphoceras, Trochoceras) are well represented. Other fossils are Ceratiocaris, Pterygolus, Protaster, Palaeocoma and Palaeodisous.

The Upper Ludlow rocks are mainly soft mud stones and shales with some harder sandy beds capable of being worked as building-stones. These sandy beds are often found covered with ripple-marks and annelid tracks; one of the uppermost sandy layers is known as the “Fucoid bed” from the abundance of the seaweed-like impressions it bears. At the top of this sub-group, near Ludlow, a brown layer occurs, from a quarter of an inch to 4 in. in thickness, full of the fragmentary remains of fish associated with those of Pterygotus and mollusca. This layer, known as the “Ludlow Bone bed, ” has been traced over a very large area (see Bone Bed). The common fossils include plants (Actinophylluni, Chondrites), ostracods, phyllocarids, eurypterids, trilobites (less common than in the older groups), numerous brachiopods (Lingula minima, Chonetes striatella), gastropods, pelecypods and cephalopods (Orthoceras bullatum). Fish include Cghalaspis, Cyathaspis, Auchenaspis. The Tilestones, Downton astle Sandstone and Ledbury shales are occasionally grouped together under the term Downtonian. They are in reality passage beds between the Silurian and Old Red Sandstone, and were originally placed in the latter system by Sir R. I. Murchison. They are mostly grey, yellow or red micaceous, shaly sandstones. Lingula cornea, Platysohisma helicites and numerous phyllocarids and ostracods occur among the fossils.

In Denbighshire and Merionethshire the upper portion of the Denbighshire Grits belongs to this horizon: viz. those from below upwards, the Nantglyn Flags, the Upper Grit beds, the Monograptus leintwardinensis beds and the Dinas Bran beds. In the Silurian area of the Lake district the Coldwell beds, forming the upper part of the Coniston Flags, are the equivalents of the Lower Ludlow; they are succeeded by the Coniston Grits (4000 ft.), the Bannisdale Slates (5200 ft.) and the Kirkby Moor Flags (2000 ft.). In the Silurian areas of southern Scotland, the Ludlow rocks are represented in the Kirkcudbright Shore and Riccarton district by the Raeberry Castle beds and Balmae Grits (500-750 ft.). In the northern belt—Lanarkshire and the Pentland Hills—the lower portion (or Ludlovian) consists of mud stones, flaggy shales and grey wackes; but the upper (or Downtonian) part is made up principally of thick red and yellow sandstones and conglomerates with green mud stones. The Ludlow rocks of Ireland include the “Salrock beds" of County Galway and the “Croagmarhin beds" of Dingle promontory.

See Silurian, and, for recent papers, the Q.J. Geol. Soc. (London) and Geological Literature (Geol. Soc., London) annual.


LUDOLF (or Leutholf), HIOB (1624–1704), German orientalist, was born at Erfurt on the 15th of June 1624. After studying philology at the Erfurt academy and at Leiden, he travelled in order to increase his linguistic knowledge. While in Italy he 'became acquainted with one Gregorius, an Abyssinian