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the administration Lorraine preserved a grateful memory of the good king Stanislaus, who held his brilliant little court at Lunéville, and founded an academy and several libraries and hospitals. At his death in February 1766 the two duchies of Lorraine and Bar became definitively incorporated in the kingdom of France. The treaties of 1735 and 1736, however, guaranteed their legislation, the privileges enjoyed by the three orders, and their common law and customs tariffs, which they retained until the French Revolution. Lorraine and Barrois formed a large government corresponding, together with the little government of the three bishoprics, to the intendance of Lorraine and the généralité of Metz. For legal purposes, Metz had been the seat of a parlement since 1633, and the parlement of Nancy was created in 1776. There was, too, a chambre des comj/tes at Metz, and another at Bar-le-duc. (For the later history see ALSACE-LORRAINE.)

See Dom. A. Calmet, Histoire ecclésiastique et civile de Lorraine (2nd ed., Nancy, E747-1757); A. Digot, Histoire de Lorraine (1879-1880); E. Huhn, eschichte Lothringens (Berlin, 1877); R. Parisot, Le Royaume de Lorraine sous les Carolingiens (Paris, 1839); Comte D'Haussonville, Histoire de la réunion de la Lorraine la France (2nd ed., Paris, 1860); E. Bonvalot, Histoire du droit et des institutions de la Lorraine et des Trois-Evechés (Paris, 1895); and E Duvernoy, Les Etats Généraux des duehés de Lorraine et de Bar jusqu'd la majorité de Charles III. (Paris, 1904) (R. PO.)

LORTZING, GUSTAV ALBERT (1801-1851), German composer, was born at Berlin on the 23rd of October 1801. Both his parents were actors, and when he was nineteen the son began to play youthful lover at the theatres of Dusseldorf and Aachen, sometimes also singing in small tenor or baritone parts. His first opera Ali Pascha von Jannina appeared in 1824, but his fame as a musician rests chiefly upon the two operas Der Wildschütz (1842) and Czar and Zimmermann (1837). The latter, although now regarded as one of the masterpieces of German comic opera, was received with little enthusiasm by the public of Leipzig. Subsequent performance in Berlin, however, provoked such a tempest of applause that the opera was soon placed on all the stages of Germany. It was translated into English, French, Swedish, Danish, Dutch, Bohemian, Hungarian and Russian. Der Wildschütz was based on a comedy of Kotzebue, and was a satire on the unintelligent and exaggerated admiration for the highest beauty in art expressed by the bourgeois gentilhomme. Of his other operas it is only necessary to note Der Pole und sein Kind, produced shortly after the Polish insurrection of 1831, and Undine (1845). Lortzing died at Berlin on the 21st of January 1851.

LORY, CHARLES (1823-1889), French geologist, was born at Nantes on the 30th of July 1823. He graduated D. ès Sc. in 1847; in 1852 he was appointed to the chair of geology at the University of Grenoble, and in 1881 to that of the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. He was distinguished for his researches on the geology of the French Alps, being engaged on the geological survey of the departments of Isère, Drôme and the Hautes Alpes, of which he prepared the maps and explanatory memoirs. He dealt with some of the disturbances in the Savoy Alps, describing the fan-like structures, and confirming the views of J. A. Favre with regard to the overthrows, reversals and duplication of the strata. His contributions to geological literature include also descriptions of the fossils and stratigraphical divisions of the Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic rocks of the Jura. He died at Grenoble on the 3rd of May 1889.

LORY (a word of Malayan origin signifying parrot, in general use with but slight variation of form in many European languages), the name of certain birds of the order Psittaci, mostly from the Moluccas and New Guinea, remarkable for their bright scarlet or crimson colouring, though also, and perhaps subsequently, applied to some others in which the plumage is chiefly green. The lories have been referred to a considerable number of genera, of which Lorius (the Domicella of some authors), Eos and Chalcopsittacus may be here particularized, while under the name of “lorikeets” may be comprehended such genera as Trichoglossus, Charmosyna, Loriculus and Coriphilus. By most systematists some of these forms have been placed far apart, even in different families of Psittaci, but A. H. Garrod has shown (Proc. Zool. Society, 1874, pp. 586-598, and 1876, p. 692) the many common characters they possess, which thus goes some way to justify the relationship implied by their popular designation. A full account of these birds is given in the first part of Count T. Salvadori's Ornitologia della Papuasia e delle Molucche (Turin 1880), whilst a later classification appeared in Salvadori's section of the British Museum Catalogue of Birds, xx., 1891.

Though the name lory has often been used for the species of Eclectus, and some other genera related thereto, modern writers would restrict its application to the birds of the genera Lorius, Eos, Chalcopsittacus and their near allies, which are often placed in a subfamily, Loriinae, belonging to the so-called family of Trichoglossidae or “brush-tongued” parrots. Garrod in his investigations on the anatomy of Psittaci was led not to attach much importance to the structure indicated by the epithet “brush-tongued” stating (Proc. Zool. Society, 1874, p. 597) that it “is only an excessive development of the papillae which are always found on the lingual surface.” The birds of this group are very characteristic of the New Guinea subregion,[1] in which occur, according to Count Salvadori, ten species of Lorius, eight of Eos and four of Chalcopsittacus; but none seem here to require any further notice,[2] though among them, and particularly in the genus Eos, are included some of the most richly-coloured birds in the whole world; nor does it appear that more need be said of the lorikeets.

The family is the subject of an excellent monograph by St George Mivart (London, 1896).

(A. N.)

LOS ANDES, a former state of Venezuela under the redivision of 1881, which covered the extreme western part of the republic N. of Zamora and S. of Zulia. In the redivision of 1904 Los Andes was cut up into three states — Mérida, Táchira and Trujillo.

LOS ANGELES, a city and the county-seat of Los Angeles county, in southern California, U.S.A., along the small Los Angeles river, in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains; a narrow strip, 18 m. long, joins the main part of the city to its water front on the ocean, San Pedro Bay. Pop. (1880) 11,183, (1890) 50,395, (1900) 102,479, of whom 19,964 were foreign-born;[3] the growth in population since 1900 has been very rapid and in 1910 it was 319,198. The city had in 1910 an area of 85.1 sq. m., of which more than one-half has been added since 1890. Los Angeles is served by the Southern Pacific, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé, and the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake railways; by steamers to San Francisco; and by five systems of urban and suburban electric railways, which have 300 m. of track within the city and 700 m. within a radius of 30 m. beyond its limits. Inclined railways ascend Third Street Hill and Court Street Hill, in the heart of the city; and a system of subways extends from the centre of the city to its western limits. The harbour, San Pedro Bay, originally open and naturally poor, has been greatly improved by the Federal government; a breakwater 9250 ft. long was begun in 1898 and the bar has been deepened, and further improvements of the inner harbour at Wilmington (which is nearly landlocked by a long narrow island lying nearly east and west across its mouth) were begun in 1907. Important municipal docks have been built by the city.

The situation of the city between the mountains and the sea is attractive. The site of the business district is level, and its plan regular; the suburbs are laid out on hills. Although not specifically a health resort, Los Angeles enjoys a high

  1. They extend, however, to Fiji, Tahiti and Fanning Island.
  2. Unless it be Oreopsittacus arfaki, of New Guinea, remarkable as the only parrot known as yet to have fourteen instead of twelve rectrices.
  3. In addition to the large foreign-born population (4023 Germans, 3017 English, 2683 English Canadians, 1885 Chinese, 1720 Irish and smaller numbers of French, Mexicans, Swedes, Italians, Scots, Swiss, Austrians, Danes, French Canadians, Russians, Norwegians, Welsh and Japanese) 26,105 of the native white inhabitants were of foreign parentage (i.e. had one or both parents not native born), so that only 54,121 white persons were of native parentage. German, French and Italian weekly papers are published in Los Angeles.