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to the top at the apex of the cone, the lower portion, for discharging the bi sulphide has been suggested as

even if efficacious, however, such

mended on account of its danger,

inflammable. The only practical

MALT 50 3

a means of destroying weevil;

a process could not be recomcarbon

bi sulphide being highly

means of ridding a gr-ana or

shop of weevil is to clear out all the grain and leave it emptyrfor a year or more.

The vitality of barley may be determined by causing a sample to germinate in any of the well-known forms of apparatus devised for that purpose, and counting the percentage of germinating and idle corns. The ger

minative capacity of a sample

of barley may frequently be raised by sweating (see below), which, as already mentioned, b


rings about a kind of artificial

M ailing.-There are two systems of malting used in England: floor malting and pneumatic or

will be described separately.

A floor malting consists of a

drum malting. These systems

rectangular building of several

storeys, having the cisterns at one end and the kilns at the other. The capacity of a malting is described by the number of quarters which are put through it every four days. A fifty quarter malting does not merely mean that the cisterns have a capacity of fifty quarters, but that this quantity of, barley goes through the house every four days. The average time the germinating barley is on the Hoors is twelve days, and, as a rule, kilning occupies four days. If, as sometimes happens, the malt has to be kept on the Hoors thirteen, fourteen, fifteen days, or even longer, the malting is not being worked at the capacity under which it is described, and the kilns may remain unused for a day or more. Conversely, when the malt is loaded at less than twelve days, a day or two has to be missed in steeping. In the former case when the kilns are not being used for drying and curing malt, advantage may be taken to utilize them for sweating barley.

Steeping cisterns were formerly rectangular vessels, of slate, brick or cement, from which the barley had to be discharged The uppermost floor is devoted to barley. by shovelling it out. The forms approved most at the present /;;:' g

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FIG. 8.-Longitudinal section of 200 quarter malting at Mortlake. (julian L. Baker, architect.) Figure 8 Shows 21 1011€itUdiIa1 5605011 Of M€SSfS Watneyg C0m!>¢. day are conical and constructed of iron; they have arrangements Reid & Co.'s zoo quarter malting at Mortlake. The barley is carried of the building by the elevator A, where the screening and dressing machinery is situated. After leaving these machines the grain is conveyed on bands to the barley floors B and C. The floor C contains also the steeping cisterns. The six working floors are D, E, F, G, H, K. The floors are ventilated by louvres, N, N, N. The cisterns are connected to the floors by means of plugs. The “ pieces, ” as they are termed, of germinating barley are gradually worked along the floors to the kilns M, M, on to which they are loaded by rotary bands. The fire-places O, O, are arranged so that the draught may be easily controlled. The hot air and products of combustion pass up the shafts P, P, to the hot-air chamber R, R, where they strike the baffle plates S, S. These plates disperse the hot air and gases evenly beneath the kiln floors T, T, through the green malt. After drying and curing, the malt is allowed to cool and is then carried by bands to the floor U, where by suitable machinery the coombs or rootlets are removed. The finished malt is stored in the bins V, V, V. On arrival at the malting the barley has to be put through the following operations seriatim: receiving, hoisting and weighing, rough screening, drying and sweating, storing until required for use, screening, grading and removing broken corns, steeping, couching, flooring, withering, drying and curing, dressing and polishing, storing, weighing, sacking and discharging the finished malt.

In sweating barley the temperature should not be allowed to rise above 120° F.; it is usually conducted at 100° F.; and subsequently the barley should be stored for some weeks before it is steeped.

grain by gravitation. The steeping period ranges from 48 to 70 hours; it varies according to the kind of barley, and the time of the year. In some of the older maltings there are no arrangements for heating the steep water, and in the winter steeping has occasionally to be performed with water at a temperature near its freezing-point. Steeping should be carried out at a temperature as near as possible to 55° and not higher than 60° F. The usual practice is to fill the cistern up to a certain height with water and throw the barley into it, stirring it until it is about level; the heavy corns will then sink directly to the bottom, whilst the light corns and refuse float on the surface and may be skimmed off. During the time the barley remains in the cistern it is usual to change the steep water two or three times, generally at intervals of twelve hours or tides. The advantage of this is not merely to keep the grain fresh and sweet, but to bring it into contact with the air during the time it is taking up water. Aeration of the steep has long been recognized in Germany as promoting germination, and several arrangements are on the market enabling air to be passed through the grain while it is in the cistern. It has been recommended by Graham, Stopes, Moritz and Morris, and experimental evidence as to its beneficial effects has been published by Windisch, Bleisch, Will, and Baker, and Dick. When the corn is steep ripe it contains some 60% of water. Steeping does not consist, however, merely in the