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LOYALTY—LOYOLA

to go to any part or parts of any of the thirteen United States, and therein to remain twelve months, unmolested in their endeavours to obtain the restitution of such of their estates, rights and properties as may have been confiscated, ” that acts and laws in the premises be reconsidered and revised, and that restitution of estates, &c., should be made. The sixth article provided “ that there shall be no future confiscations made, nor any prosecutions commenced against any person ” for having taken part in the war; and that those in confinement on such charges should be liberated. In Great Britain opponents of the government asserted that the Loyalists had virtually been betrayed; in America the treaty aroused opposition as making too great concessions to them. Congress made the promised recommendations, but they were unheeded by the various states, in spite of the advocacy by Alexander Hamilton a conciliatory treatment of the Loyalists; and in retaliation, refused until 1 6 to evacuate and others of

Great Britain, 79

the western posts as the treaty prescribed. Immediately after the war parliament appointed a commission of five to examine the claims of the Loyalists for compensation for services and losses; and to satisfy these claims and to establish Loyalists in Nova Scotia and Canada the British government expended fully £6,000,000.

See C. H. van Tyne, The Loyalists in the American Revolution (New York, 1902), which contains much valuable information but does not explain adequately the causes of loyalism. More useful in this respect is the monograph by A. C. Flick, Loyalism in New York during the American Revolution (New York, 1901). On the biographical side see Lorenzo Sabine, Biographical Sketches of Loyalists of the American Revolution (2 vols.. Boston, 1864); on the literary side, M. C Tyler, Literary History of the American Revolution, 1763-1783 (2 vols., New York, 1897).


LOYALTY, allegiance to the sovereign or established govern ment of one's country, also personal devotion and reverence to the sovereign and royal family. The English word came into use in the early part of the 15th century in the sense of fidelity to one's oath, or in service, iove, &c.; the later and now the ordinary sense appears in the 16th century. The O. Fr. loialté, mod. loyauté, is formed from loial, loyal, Scots leal, Lat. legalis, legal, from /ex, law. This was used in the special feudal sense of one who has full legal rights, a legalis homo being opposed to the exlex, utlegatus, or outlaw. Thence in the sense of faithful, it meant one who kept faithful allegiance to his feudal lord, and so loyal in the accepted use of the word.


LOYALTY ISLANDS (Fr. Iles Loyalty or Loyauté), a group in the South Pacific Ocean belonging to France, about 100 m. E. of New Caledonia, with a total land area of about 1o5o sq. m. and zo,000 inhabitants. It consists of Uea or Uvea (the northernmost), Lifu (the largest island, with an area of 650 sq. m.), Tiga and several small islands and Maré or Nengone. They are coral islands of comparatively recent elevation, and in no place rise more than 250 ft. above the level of the sea. Enough of the rocky surface is covered with a thin coating of soil to enable the natives to grow yarns, taro, bananas, &c., for their support; cotton thrives well, and has even been exported in small quantities, but there is no space available for its cultivation on any considerable scale. Fresh water, rising and falling with the tide, is found in certain large caverns in Lifu, and by sinking to the sea-level a supply may be obtained in any part of the island. The chief product of the islands are bananas; the chief export sandal-wood.

The Loyalty islanders are Melanesians; the several islands have each its separate language, and in Uea one tribe uses a Samoan and another a New Hebridean form of speech. The Loyalty group was discovered at the beginning of the 10th century, and Dumont d'Urville laid down the several islands in his chart. For many years the natives had a reputation as dangerous cannibals, but they are now among the most civilized Melanesians. Christianity was introduced into Mare by native teachers from Rarotonga and Samoa; missionaries were settled by the London Missionary Society at Maré in 1854, at Lifu in 1859 and at Uea in 1865: Roman Catholic missionaries also arrived from New Caledonia; and in 1864 the French, considering the islands a dependency of that colony, formally instituted a commandant. An attempt was made by this official to put a stop to the English missions by violence; but the report of his conduct led to so much indignation in Australia and in England that the emperor Napoleon, on receipt of a protest from Lord Shaftesbury and others, caused a commission of inquiry to be appointed and free liberty of worship to be secured to the Protestant missions. A further persecution of Christians in Uea, during 1875, called forth a protest from the British government.


LOYOLA, ST IGNATIUS OF (1491-1556), founder of the Society of Jesus. Inigo Lopez de Recalde, son of Beltran, lord of the noble houses of Loyola and Onaz, was born, according to the generally accepted opinion, on the 24th of December 1491 at the castle of Loyola, which is situated on the river Urola, about 1 m. from the town of Azpeitia, in the province of Guipuzcoa. He was the youngest of a family of thirteen. As soon as he had learnt the elements of reading and writing, he was sent as a page to the court of Ferdinand and Isabella; afterwards, until his twenty-sixth year, he took service with Antonio Maurique, duke of Nagera, and followed the career of arms. He was free in his relations with women, gambled and fought; but he also gave indications of that courage, constancy and prudence which marked his after life. In a political mission to settle certain disputes in the province he showed his dexterity in managing men.

Despite the treaty of Noyon (1516), CharlesV. kept Pampeluna, the capital of Navarre. André de Foix, at the head of the French troops, laid siege to the town in 1521 and Ignatius was one of the defending garrison. In the hour of danger, the claims of religion reasserted themselves on the young soldier, and, following a custom when no priest was at hand, he made his confession to a brother officer, who in turn also confessed to him. During the final assault on the 19th of May 1521 a cannon ball struck him, shattering one of his legs and badly wounding the other. The victorious French treated him kindly for nearly two weeks, and then sent him in a litter to Loyola. The doctors declared that the leg needed to be broken and set again; and the operation was borne without a sign of pain beyond a clenching of his fist. His vanity made him order the surgeons to cut out a bone which protruded below the knee and spoilt the symmetry of his leg. He was lame for the rest of his days. Serious illness followed the operations, and, his life being despaired of, he received the last sacraments on the 28th of June. That night, however, he began to mend, and in a few days he was out of danger. During convalescence two books that were to influence his life were brought to him. These were a Castilian translation of The Life of Christ by Ludolphus of Saxony, and the popular Flowers of the Saints, a series of pious biographies. He gradually became interested in these books, and a mental struggle began. Sometimes he would pass hours thinking of a certain illustrious lady, devising means of seeing her and of doing deeds that would win her favour; at other times the thoughts suggested by the books got the upper hand. He began to recognize that his career of arms was over: so he would become the knight of Christ. He determined to make the pilgrimage to Jerusalem and to practise all the austerities that he read of in The Flowers of the Saints. Expiating his sins was not so much his aim as to accomplish great deeds for God. During the struggle that went on in his soul, he began to take note of his psychological state; and this was the first time that he exercised his reason on spiritual things; the experience thus painfully gained he found of great use afterwards in directing others. One night while he lay awake, he tells us, he saw the likeness of the Blessed Virgin with her divine Son; and immediately a loathing seized him for the former deeds of his life, especially for those relating to carnal desires; and he asserts that for the future he never yielded to any such desires. This was the first of many visions. Ignatius proposed after returning from Jerusalem to join the Carthusian order at Seville as a lay brother. About the same time Martin Luther was in the full course of his protest against the papal supremacy and had already burnt the pope's bull at Worms. The two opponents were girding themselves for the struggle; and