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SALTER—SALT LAKE CITY

cover. The "trencher salts" are either of triangular or circular shape, some are many-sided. The circular silver salt with legs came into use in the 18th century.

SALTER, JOHN WILLIAM (1820–1869), English naturalist and palaeontologist, was born on the 15th of December 1820. He was apprenticed in 1835 to James de Carle Sowerby, and was engaged in drawing and engraving the plates for Sowerby's Mineral Conchology, the Supplement to his English Botany, and other Natural History works. In 1842 he was employed for a short time by Sedgwick in arranging the fossils in the Woodwardian Museum at Cambridge, and he accompanied the professor on several geological expeditions (1842–1845) into Wales. In 1846 he was appointed on the staff of the Geological Survey and worked under Edward Forbes until 1854; he was then appointed palaeontologist to the survey and gave his chief attention to the palaeozoic fossils, spending much time in Wales and the border counties. He contributed the palaeontological portion to A. C. Ramsay's Memoir on the Geology of North Wales (1866), assisted Murchison in his work on Siluria (1854 and later editions), and Sedgwick by preparing A Catalogue of the Collection of Cambrian and Silurian Fossils contained in the Geological Museum of the University of Cambridge (1873). Salter prepared several of the Decades of the Geological Survey and became the leading authority on Trilobites, contributing to the Palaeontographical Society four parts of A Monograph of British Trilobites (1864-1867). He resigned his post on the Geological Survey in 1863, and died on the 2nd of August 1869.

SALTILLO, a city and the capital of the state of Coahuila, Mexico, about 615 m. by rail N. by W. of the city of Mexico. Pop. (1900) 23,996. Saltillo is on the Mexican National railway and another railway connects it with the important mining and industrial town of Torreon, on the Mexican Central. The city is on the great central plateau of Mexico, about 5200 ft. above sea-level. It has a cool and healthy climate, and is a resort in summer for the people of the tropical coast districts, and in winter for invalids from the north. The city is laid out in regular squares, with shady streets and plazas. The residences are of the Spanish colonial type, with heavy walls and large rooms to insure coolness during the heat of the day. Among its public institutions are a national college, an athenaeum, the Madero Institute with a good library, some fine churches, and the charitable institutions common to all Mexican cities. Saltillo is an active commercial and manufacturing town, and an important railway centre. Its manufactures include cotton and woollen fabrics, knitted goods and flour. The woollen “zarapes” or “ponchos” of Saltillo are among the finest produced in Mexico. There are undeveloped coal deposits in the vicinity.

Saltillo was founded in 1586 as an outpost against the Apache Indians. It became an incorporated city in 1827. In 1824 the capital of the state of Coahuila and Texas was at Saltillo. A partisan controversy removed the seat of government to Monclova in 1833, but it was returned to Saltillo in 1835. The battle of Buena Vista was fought near Saltillo on the 22nd–23rd of February 1847. After leaving San Luis Potosi, President Juarez established his capital at Saltillo for a brief period.

SALT LAKE CITY, the capital city of Utah and the county-seat of Salt Lake county, in the N.W. part of Utah, immediately E. of the Jordan river in the Salt Lake Valley, near the base of the Wasatch mountains, at an altitude of about 4350 ft., about 11 m. S.E. of the Great Salt Lake, about 710 m. W. by N. of Denver and about 930 m. E. of San Francisco. Pop. (1860) 8236; (1900) 53,531; (1910 census) 92,777. Area, 51.25 sq. m. Of the total population in 1900, 12,741 (nearly one-fourth) were foreign-born, including 5157 English,[1] 1687 Swedes, 965 Danes, 963 Germans and 912 Scotch; 35,152 were of foreign-parentage (one or the other parent foreign-born); 278 were negroes, 214 Chinese, 22 Japanese. Salt Lake City is served by the Denver & Rio Grande, the Union Pacific, the Western Pacific, the Oregon Short Line, and the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake railways; it is also a terminus of shorter roads to Ogden, to Los Angeles and to Mercur, a mining town in the Oquirrh mountains (S. of Great Salt Lake) whose ores are reduced by the cyanide process. The Oregon Short Line and the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake have a union railway station (1909), and the Denver & Rio Grande and the Western Pacific also have a large union railway station (1910). The street railway system is excellent; electric cars were introduced in 1889; and the street railways were reorganized by E. H. Harriman, who bought a controlling interest in them.

The situation of the city is striking, with views of mountains and of the Great Salt Lake, and the climate is dry and salubrious. The city is the headquarters of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (see Mormons). The streets are laid out, according to the plan of Brigham Young, with city blocks of 10 acres each (660 ft. sq.) and streets 132 ft. wide, and well shaded with trees planted along irrigating ditches, fed by mountain streams. Brigham (or South Temple) Street is a fine boulevard running 3 m. from the Temple to Fort Douglas. Most of the streets are numbered and named “East” or “ West,” “North” or “ South,” from their direction from the centre of the city, the Temple Block. State Street is the official name of First East Street; and East Temple Street is called Main, and South Temple Street (east of the Temple block) is called Brigham. The only developed parks are Pioneer and City Hall, both small, and Liberty Park (110 acres), in which Brigham Young built a grist mill in 1852 and which was bought from his estate by the city in 1880. There are bathing parks on the shores of Great Salt Lake, 11.15 m. W. of the city—the best known being Saltair, which has a Moorish pavilion; and 5 m. S. is Wandamere (formerly Calder's) Park (64 acres). Three miles E. of the city is Fort Douglas, established as Camp Douglas in 1862 by Colonel P. Edward Connor (1820–1891), afterwards prominently connected with the development of the mineral resources of Utah; the fort overlooks the city, being more than 4900 ft. above sea-level. In the city there are medicinal and thermal springs, and water at a temperature of 98-104° F. is piped to a large bath-house (1850) in the N. part of the city. The most prominent buildings are those of the Church of Latter-Day Saints, particularly, in Temple Square, the Temple, Tabernacle, and Assembly Hall. The great Mormon Temple (1853–1893) has grey granite walls 6 ft. thick, is 99 × 186 ft., and has six spires, the highest (220 ft.) having a copper statue of the angel Moroni. The elliptical Tabernacle (1870) has a rounded, turtle-shell shaped roof, unsupported by pillars or beams, seats nearly 10,000, and has a large pipe organ (5000 pipes). The Assembly Hall (1880), also of granite, has an auditorium which seats about 2500. In 1909 a bishopric building, with many of the business offices of the church, was built. Other buildings connected with the history of the Mormon church are three residences of Brigham Young, called the Lion House, the Beehive (the beehive is the symbol of the industry of the Mormon settlers in the desert and appears on the state seal), and the Amelia Palace or Gardo House (1877), which is now rivately owned and houses an excellent private art gallery. Three blocks E. of the Temple is St Mary's, the Roman Catholic cathedral (1909, 100-200 ft.; with two towers 175 ft. high). Other large churches are: St Mark's Cathedral (1869, Protestant Episcopal) and the First Presbyterian Church (1909). There is a large city and county building (1894), built of rough grey sandstone from Utah county; it has a dome on the top of which is a statue of Columbia; over its entrances are statues of Commerce, Liberty and Justice; its balconies command views of the neighbouring country and of the Great Salt Lake; the interior is decorated with Utah onyx. Other buildings are: the Federal building; the Packard Library, the public library of the city (1905), one block E. of Temple Block, which housed in 1910 about 40,000 volumes; and several business buildings. Typical of the city is the great building of the Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution, a concern established by Brigham Young in 1868—there are several large factories connected with it, and its annual sales average more than $5,000,000. A monument to Brigham Young and the Utah Pioneers, crowned by a statue of Brigham Young, by C. E. Dallin, was unveiled in 1897, at the intersection of Main and Brigham Streets. The city has numerous hospitals and charities, and there is a state penitentiary here. In the S.E. part is the Judge Miner's Home and Hospital (Roman Catholic), a memorial to John judge, a successful Utah miner.

Salt Lake City has a good public school system in the city is the University of Utah, chartered in 1850 as the University of the state of Deseret and opened in November 1850; it was practically discontinued from 1851 until 1867, and then was scarcely more than a business college until 1869; its charter was amended in 1884 and a new charter was issued in 1894, when the present style of the corporation was assumed; in 1894 60 acres from the Fort Douglas reservation were secured for the campus. In 1909–1910 the university consisted of a school of arts and sciences, a state school of mines (1901), a normal school, and a preparatory department. Other institutions of learning are: the Latter-Day Saints University (1887) and the Latter-Day Saints High School, St Mary's Academy (1875; under the Roman Catholic Sisters of the Holy Cross), All Hallows College (1886; Roman Catholic), Gordon Academy (1870; Congregational), Rowland Hall Academy (1880; Protestant Episcopal)


  1. The early Mormon missions in England were very successful, and many of the leaders of the church and those otherwise prominent in Salt Lake City have been of English birth.