supreme duty of self-sacrince for the sake of the salvation of others.
The Army is under the control of the General for the time being, who issues all orders and regulations. Large powers devolve upon other othcers, such as the “Chief of the Staff, ” the “Foreign Secretary, ” and the “ Chancellor, ” who direct affairs from the “ International Headquarters ” in London. The system of government is autocratic, “ unquestioning obedience ” being required throughout all ranks. The Army is divided, usually in harmony with national boundaries, into “ territories, ” each under a “ Commissioner, ” with headquarters in the capital of the country. The Territories are generally divided into “ Provinces ” and these again into “ Divisions, ” which include a number of corps, each supporting its own “ Captain ” and “ Lieutenant.” The “ soldiers ” or members are drawn from all classes of the community. The property of the Army in the United Kingdom is held by the General for the time being, for the benefit of the Army exclusively, he being constituted the sole trustee of the property, in the disposal of which and in the appointment of his successor he is placed under the government of a deed poll, executed by Booth while the body was still known as “ The Christian Mission, ” and enrolled in the Court of Chancery in August 1878. In other countries various modifications have been necessary, but the General's ultimate control has been practically assured. A further deed poll providing for the removal of a General in the contingency of “ mental incapacity ” or other and was started with subscriptions amounting to over £100, oo0. A separate deed poll, making the General sole trustee, was executed by Booth in regard to the property and funds of this branch of work. Since then, both in Great Britain and abroad, the scheme has been actively carried on. The amount received in the year ending 30th September 1909 for cheap food and lodging in the United Kingdom was returned at £42,022 for the m en's work, and £6417 for the w0men's. Large numbers. of unemployed, ex-criminal and other needy persons have been aided or dealt with. In the year ending 30th September 1909, the number of persons received into the “ elevators ” or factories was reported as 6425, of women and girls received into rescue homes as 2559. The farm colony at Hadleigh in Essex has a large acreage under cultivation, with fruit and market gardens and various industrial undertakings. The emigration department, although a development of the Darkest England Scheme, has no connexion with the rescue work; in 1907 the passage money received amounted to £8 5,014, and in 1909 to £38,179 An “ anti-suicide bureau ” was opened in 1907, and at Boxted, near Colchester, a scheme for Small Holdings has been initiated. In 1909 the value of the property held under the Darkest England Scheme in the United Kingdom was returned at £329,645, and the income of the central fund at £50, 594. Summary of Social Operations throughout the World (Compiled from the “ S.A. Year-Book, 1910 ). “ unfitness, " and for the election of a successor, was executed by Booth in July 1904.
Funds are raised from the voluntary offerings of the corps, from open-air and other collections, from friends interested in evangelical and charitable work, and from the profits on publications and general trading. The hnancial statements of the various national headquarters funds are annually published, certified by public accountants, in each country. In 1909 the general income and expenditure account of International Headquarters in London dealt with a total of £64,345 Details of the aggregate income raised in the United Kingdom by the corps are not published. The annual Self-Denial oiiering (Great Britain) was £12,663 in 1888, £72,562 in 1906 and £69,034 in 1910. The value of the assets Number of Institutions.
- ' ' Total
Kmgd0m Abroad. Total. Agrétgignio
and Food Depots 31 156 187 18,531
Labour Bureaus 8 50 58
Labour Homes and Factories 28 II7 145 4,936 Ex-criminal Homes . .1 18 18 486
Farm Colonies . 2 15 I7
and Maternity Homes 32 107 139 3,469
Shelters and Food Depots 10 20 30 1,934 Children's Homes and Creches 2 57 59 Slum Posts 44 I0§ 147
Other Social Institutions 17 87 104 Total Institutions 174 730 904 29,356 Total number of officers engaged exclusively in social worl<r, 2520. 1 in the United Kingdom ex-criminals are now received in the ordinary labour of the spiritual work in the United Kingdom increased from £558,992 in 1891 to £1,357,706 in 1909, the liabilities on account of loans upon mortgage) and otherwise amounting at the latter date to £662,23 5. The assets of the Trade Departments were valued at £110,657 in 1909.
Statistics of Spiritual Operations
(Compiled from the “ S.A. Year Book, 1910 ”) Corps and Officers
Outposts. and Cadets.
The British Isles 1447 3,191 1
The United States ... 871 2,983
South America and West Indies 128 188 Canada and Newfoundland . 465 950
Australasia and java 1283 1,721
India, Ceylon, japan and Korea 2584 1,626 South Africa and St Helena 113 278
France, Belgium, Switzerland and
Italy . 374 499
Germany and Holland . 248 772
Sweden, Norway, F inland [Denmark
I and Iceland, .... 1067 1,513
Gibraltar and Malta ... 2 5
Q Total 8582 13,726
Employees (without rank), 6269.
Ohicers and employees (British Isles), 7538. Bo0th's scheme for Social Relief, described in In Darkest England, and the Way Out (1890), attracted wide-spread interest, homes and factories.
There are a number of subsidiary branches of work, such as the Young People's Legion, and the Naval and Military League for work among men in the military, naval and merchant services. In England there is a bank (the Reliance Bank, Ltd.) and a Life Assurance Society, the funds of the latter amounting to £ 566,309 in 1909. All officers and many of the rank and file wear a uniform. Music is universally employed. While the organization has succeeded in securing recognition and favour in high places both in England and abroad, it has been seriously criticized at times, notably by Huxley and others in I8QO~I8QI, and more recently by ]. Manson in The Salvation Army and the Public, a work which led to much public discussion of the Army's religious, social and hnancial operations and methods. In 1910 some resignations took place among the higher officials.
Authorities.-William Booth. Orders and Regulations for Soldiers; Orders and Regulations for Field Ojieers; Orders and Regulations for Staj Ojicers; Salvation Soldiery; Interview with W. E. Gladstone; In Darkest England and the Way Out (1890); Bramwell Booth, Social Reparation; Servants of All (1899); Booth-Tucker, The Life of Catherine Booth (1892); Railton, Heathen England; Twenty-one Years; Salvation Army; Arnold White, Truth about the Salvation Army (1892, 1900 and 1906); The Great Idea (1909; 2nd ed., 1910); T. F. G. Coates, The Life Story of General Booth (2nd ed., 1906); Harold Begbie, Broken Earthenware (1909); Various reports and accounts; The War Cry, The Social Gazette, The Salvation Army Year Book, éfc. Criticism; Thomas H. Huxley, “Social Diseases
and Worse, Remedies" in Collected Essays, vol. ix. (1895); John