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SALZKAMMERGUT—SAMAIN

was martyred by the pagan Heruli in 477. The Franciscan church, with an elegant tower built in 1866, is an interesting example of the transition style of the 13th century, with later baroque additions. St Sebastian's, on the right bank, built in 1505-1512 and restored in 1812, contains the tomb of Paracelsus, who died here. The oldest and most important of the eight convents at Salzburg is the Benedictine abbey of St Peter founded by St Rupert as the nucleus of the city. It was completely rebuilt in 1131 and contains a librar -of 40,000 volumes, besides MSS. The Capuchin monastery, dating from 1599, gives name to the Capuzinerberg. The oldest nunnery is that founded on the N onnberg by St Rupert, the Gothic church of which dates from 1423 and contains some line stained glass and some old frescoes. The single Protestant church in Salzburg was not built until 1865. A theological seminary is the only relic now left of the university of Salzburg, founded in 1623 and su pressed in 1810. The city is the see of an archbishop with a catheciinal chapter and a consistory. Salzburg, situated at an altitude of 1351 ft. above sealevel, has a healthy climate and is visited annually by over 60,000 tourists. It has a mean annual temperature of 46-4° F. and a mean annual rainfall of 45-59 in. The town carries on a variety of small manufactures, including musical instruments, iron-wares, marble ornaments. Other industries are brewing and book-binding. It was the birthplace of Mozart and of the painter Hans Makart (1840-1884). The house in which Mozart was born has been transformed into a museum, which contains many interesting relics. Numerous places of interest and beautiful spots are to be found round Salzburg. To the E. rises the Gaisberg (4206 ft.), which is ascended by a rack-and-pinion railway, which starts from Parsch. At the foot of the Gaisberg is Aigen, a renowned castle and park. 4 Three miles S. of Salzburg is the palace of Hellbrunn, built about 1615, which contains a famous mechanical theatre and some fine fountains. About 2 m. to the S.W. of Salzburg is the castle of Leopoldskron, and from this point the Leopoldskroner Moos stretches S. to the base of the Untersberg. A few peat-baths, as the Ludwigsbad and the Marienbad, are in the neighbourhood of Leopoldskron. Three and a half miles N. of Salzburg, at an altitude of 1720 ft., stands the pil rimage church of Maria Plain, erected in 1674. The origin and development of Salzburg were alike ecclesiastical, and its history is involved with that of the archbishopric to which it gave its name. The old Roman town of Iuvavum was laid in ruins, and the incipient Christianity of the district overwhelmed, by the pagan Goths and Huns. The nucleus of the present city was the monastery and bishopric founded here about 700 by St Rupert of Worms, who had been invited by Duke Theodo of Bavaria to preach Christianity in his land. The modern name of the town, due like several others in the district to the abundance of salt found there, appears before the end of the 8th century. After Charlemagne had taken possession of Bavaria in the 8th century, Bishop Arno of Salzburg was made an archbishop and papal legate. Thenceforward the dignity and power of the see steadily increased and in the course of time the archbishops obtained high secular honours. In 1278 Rudolph of Habsburg made them imperial princes. The strife between lord and people was always keen in Salzburg. Archbishop Leonhard Il., who expelled the Jews from Salzburg in 1498, had to face a conspiracy o the nobles and was besieged in Hohen-Salzburg by the inhabitants in 151 1. The Peasants' War also raged within the see in 1525 and 1526, and was only quelled with the aid of the Swabian League. From the beginning an orthodox stronghold of the Roman Catholic faith, Salzburg energetically opposed the Reformation. Under Archbishop Wolfgang Dietric (d. 1611) many Protestant citizens were driven from the town and their houses demolished. In spite, however, of rigorous persecution the new faith spread, and a new and more searching edict of expulsion was issued by Archbishop Leopold Anton von Firmian (d. 1744). The Protestants invoked the aid of Frederick William I. of Prussia, who procured for them permission to sell their goods and to emigrate; and in 1731 and 1732 Salzburg parted with about 30,000 industrious and peaceful citizens, about 6000 of these coming from the capital. The last independent archbishop was Hieronymus von Colloredo (1732-1812), who ruled with energy and justice but without gaining popularity.

By the eace of Lunéville (1802) the see was secularized and given to the arcliduke of Austria and grand-duke of Tuscany in exchange for Tuscany, its new owner being enrolled amon the electoral princes. In the redistribution following the peace 0? Pressburg in 1805, Salzburg fell to Austria. Four years later it passed to Bavaria, 'but after the peace of Paris it was restored to Austria in 1816, except a portion on the left bank of the Salzach. Under the desi nation of a duchy the territory formed the department of Salzacli in Upper Austria until 1849, when it was made a separate crown land, and finally in 1861 the management of its affairs was entrusted to a local diet. The actual duchy does not correspond exactly with 'the old bishopric. Salzburg embraced at the time of the eace of Westphalia (1648) an area of 3821 sq. m. with a population 0fp190,000. A part of its territory was ceded to Bavaria in 1814, and when Salzburg became 4 separate crown land in 1849 several o its districts were added to iro .

For the history of the archbishopric see Meiller, Regatta archiepiscoporum Salisbur ensium, 1106-1246 (Vienna, 1866); Diimmler, Beitrage zur Geschzclite des Erzbistums von Salzburg im 9-12 Jahrhundert (Vienna, 1859); the Salzburger Urkundeubueh, edited by W. Hauthaler (Salzburg, 189); Pichler, Salzbur s Landesgeschichte (Salzburg, 1865); Doblhoiig Beitrage zum Quueliusludium Salzburgischer Landeskunde (Salzburg, 1893-1895); Greinz, 'Die Erzdibzese Salzburg (Vienna, 1898); Rieder, Kurze Geschlchle des Laudes Salzburg (Vienna, 1905)i E. Richter, Das Herzogtum Salzburg (1881); Thym, Das Herzogturn Salzburg (1901), and F. von Pichl, Kritische Abhandlungen uber die dlteste Geschichte Salzburgs (Innsbruck, 1889). For the town see Widmann, Geschichte Salzburgs (Gotha, 1907); F. von Zillner, Geschichte der Stadt Salzburg (Salzburg, 1885-1890); Trautwein, Salzburg (12th ed., Innsbruck, 1901); ]. Meurer, Fuhrer durch Salzburg (Vienna, 1889), and Purtscheller, Fuhrer durch Salzburg und Urn ebung (Salzburg, 1905). See also C. F. Arnold, Die Ausrotlung dis Pralestautismus in Salzburg unter Erzbischof Firmian (1900).


SALZKAMMERGUT, a district of Austria in the S.W. angle of the duchy of Upper Austria situated between Salzburg and Styria. It forms separate imperial domain of about 250 sq. m. and is famous for its fine scenery, which has gained for it the title of the “Austrian Switzerland ”; but it owes its name (literally “ salt-exchequer property ”) and its economic importance to its valuable salt mines. It belongs to the region of the Eastern Alps, and contains the Dachstein group with the Dachstein (9830 ft.) and the Thorstein (9657 ft.). In the Dachstein group are found the most easterly glaciers of the Alps, of which the largest is the Karls-Eisfeld, nearly 2% m. long and 1% m. broad; the Ischler Alps with the Gamsfeld (6640 ft.), the Hollengebirge with the great Hollenkogel (6106 ft.), and the Schafberg (5837 ft.), which is called the “ Austrian Rigi.” Then comes the Todtes Gebirge, with the Grosser Priel (8246 ft.) and the Traunstein (5446 ft.) on the E. shore of the Traun lake; the Pyhrgas group with the Grosser Pyhrgas (7360 ft.) and the Sengsen or Sensen group, with the Hoher Nock (6431 ft.). The chief lakes are the Traun-see or Lake of Gmunden (1383 ft. above sea.-level, 9 sq. rn. in extent, 623 ft. deep); the Hallstatter-see or Lake of Hallstatt (1629 ft. above sea-level, 3% sq. m. in extent, 409 ft. deep); the Atter-see or Kammer-see (1527 ft. abovesealevel, 18 sq. m. in extent, 560 ft. deep), the largest lake in Austria; the Mond-see (1560 ft. above the sea, 9 sq. m. in extent, 222 ft. deep) and the Aber-see or Lake of St Wolfgang (1742 ft. above sea-level, 5% sq. m. in extent, 369 ft. deep). Salzkammergut had in 1900 a population of over 18,000. The capital of the district is Gmunden, and other places of importance are Ischl, Hallstatt and Ebensee (7656), which are important salt-mining centres. The salt extracted in Salzkammergut amounts to nearly 30% of the total Austrian production. Cattlerearing and forestry form the other principal occupations of the inhabitants.

See Kegele, Das Salzkamrnergut (Wien, 1897).


SALZWEDEL, a town in the Prussian province of Saxony, in a plain on the navigable Jeetze, a tributary of the Elbe, 32 rn. N.W. of Stendal and IO6 rn. by rail N.W. of Berlin, on the line to Bremen. Pop. (1905) 11,122. Salzwedel is partly surrounded by medieval walls and gates. The church of St Mary is a fine Gothic structure of the 13th century with live naves and a lofty spire. The old town hall, burnt down in 1895, has been replaced by a modern edifice. The industries include linen and darnask weaving, tanning, brewing and the manufacture of pins, chemicals and machinery, and a brisk river trade is carried on in agricultural produce.

Salzwedel, formerly Soltwedel, was founded by the Saxons, and was from 1070 to 1170 the capital of the old or north Mark, also for a time called the “ mark of Soltwedel, ” the kernel of Brandenburg-Prussia. The old castle, perhaps founded by Charlemagne, was purchased in 1864 by the king of Prussia. Salzwedel was also a member of the Hanseatic League, and at the beginning of the 16th century seems to have transacted a great part of the inland commerce of North Germany. See Pohlmann, Geschichte der Stadt Salzwedel (Halle, 1811), and lzanxgeil, Geschichte der kauiglicheu Burg zu Salzwedel (Salzwedel, 165 .


SAMAIN, ALBERT VICTOR (1858–1900), French poet, was born at Lille on the 4th of April 1858. He was educated at the lycée of that town, and on leaving it entered a bank as a clerk. He enjoyed no literary associations, and his talent developed

slowly in solitude. About 1884 Samain went to Paris, having