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SAN ANTONIO DE LOS BAÑOS—SANCERRE

Roman Catholic bishops. Among the charitable institutions are the City Hospital (1886), the Santa Rosa Infirmary (1869), maintained by Sisters of Charity, a House of Refuge (1897), a Rescue Home (1895), a home for destitute children and aged persons (1897), the St Francis Home for the Aged (1893), St John's Orphan Asylum (1878), St Joseph's Orphan Asylum (1871) and the Protestant Home for Destitute Children (1887).

The principal manufactures are malt liquors, flour and gristmill products and steam railway cars. San Antonio is the commercial centre of a great live stock and farming region.

Under the charter of 1903, as amended in 1907, the municipal government consists of a city council, composed of the mayor, four aldermen, elected at large, and eight ward aldermen, all elected for a term of two years, as are the other elective officers; a city attorney, an assessor, a collector, a treasurer, an auditor and judge of the Corporation Court. Any elective officer may be removed by the vote of eight members of the council. Other officers are appointed by the mayor with the confirmation of the council. The city water supply, owned by a private corporation, is obtained from artesian wells with a capacity of 40,000,000 gallons a day. The city has a sewer-farm of 530 acres which the charter forbids it to sell.

San Antonio was the capital of Texas during the periods of Spanish and Mexican rule. The presidio of San Antonio de Bexar and the mission of San Antonio de Valero were founded in 1718 under the direction of Martin de Alarcón, governor of Coahuila. San Antonio was accordingly from the beginning a combination of two of the three types of Spanish settlement, the military and the ecclesiastical (see Texas: History). To these was added the third, the civil type, in 1731, when the villa of San Fernando was established. Several missions were established in the neighbourhood, including those already mentioned and San Xavier de Náxera (1722), a new foundation. All of these missions decreased in importance with the disappearance of the Indians and by the close of the period of Spanish rule (1821) had been abandoned. San Antonio was captured by the Magee-Gutierrez party in 1813, but was recovered by the Mexican royalists (see Texas: History). It was besieged by the Texan army under General Stephen F. Austin and Edward Burleson in 1835 and was finally taken early in December as the result of an attack led by Colonel Benjamin R. Milam. Its recapture by Santa Anna, February-March 1836, was distinguished by the heroic defence of the mission (particularly the chapel of the Alamo) by Colonels William Barrett Travis, James Bowie and Davy Crockett, and 178 others against the attack of about 4000 Mexicans. After a bombardment lasting from the 23rd of February to the 6th of March, the Mexicans assaulted on the 6th, were twice beaten back, and then overpowered and slaughtered the garrison, the five survivors being subsequently bayonetted in cold blood. Three women, one a Mexican, two children and a negro servant were spared. “Remember the Alamo” became a war-cry of the Texans. The Mexicans again invaded Texas in 1842, and San Antonio was twice captured and held for short periods, first by General Vasquez and later by General Woll. After 1836 there was a large influx of Anglo-Americans and Germans, and the Mexican element long ago ceased to predominate. Charters of incorporation were granted in 1837, 1842, 1852, 1856, 1870 and 1903. At San Antonio in February 1861 General David E. Twiggs (1790-1862), a veteran of the Mexican War, surrendered the Department of Texas, without resistance, to the Confederate general, Ben McCulloch; for this General Twiggs was dismissed from the United States army, and in May he became a major-general in the Confederate service. The rapid growth of San Antonio dates from 1878, when the first railway entered the city.

See William Corner, San Antonio de Bexar (San Antonio, 1890); The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, ii. 217-226, viii. 277-352; and George P. Garrison, Texas (Boston and New York, 1903), in the “American Commonwealths Series.”

SAN ANTONIO DE LOS BAÑOS, a small town in Havana Province, Cuba, about 23 m. (by rail) S.W. of Havana. Pop. (1907) 9125. San Antonio de los Baños is served by the W. branch of the United Railways of Havana. It is on the banks of the Ariguanabo river, which drains a lake of the same name, and is itself one of the many “disappearing rivers” of the island; it disappears in a cave near San Antonio. The town has mineral springs and baths, and is a summer resort of the people of Havana. Though spreading over hills, the plan of the town is regular. The tobacco of the Vuelta Abajo lands immediately around the city is famous. The pueblo arose in the middle of the 18th century as a camp for convicts from Mexico. It became a villa in 1794. Early in the 19th century refugees from Santo Domingo settled here and founded coffee estates that gave the place great prosperity until the expulsion of the French in 1809; subsequently the cultivation of tobacco renewed its prosperity.

SANATORIUM (a modern Latinism, formed from sanare, to cure, restore to health, sanus, whole, healthy, well; often wrongly spelled sanatarium or sanitarium), an establishment where persons suffering from disease, or convalescents, may be received for medical treatment, rest cures and the like; in recent modern usage particularly used for establishments where patients suffering from phthisis may undergo the open-air treatment (see Therapeutics). The mis-spellings of the word, sanitarium and sanatarium, are due to a confusion of “sanatory,” i.e. giving health, from sanare, and “sanitary,” pertaining to health, from sanitas, health.

SANATRUCES (Sinatruces, Pers. Sanatruk), Parthian king. In the troublous times after the death of Mithradates II. (c. 88 B.C.) he was made king by the Sacaraucae, a Mongolian tribe who had invaded Iran in 76 B.C. He was eighty years old and reigned seven years; his successor was his son Phraates III. (Lucian, Macrob. 15; Phlegon, fr. 12 ap. Phot. cod. 97; Appian, Mithr. 104; Dio Cass. xxxvi. 45). Another Sanatruces (Sanatrucius) is mentioned as an ephemeral Parthian king in A.D. 115 (Malalas, Chron. p. 270, 273). (Ed. M.)

SAN BERNARDINO, a city and the county-seat of San Bernardino county, California, U.S.A., about 60 m. E. of Los Angeles. Pop. (1900) 6150 (873 foreign-born); (1910) 12,779. It is served by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé, the Southern Pacific and the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake railways, and by an interurban electric line. The city is situated in a valley at an altitude of about 1050 ft., at the S. base of the San Bernardino mountain range and 20 m. W. of San Bernardino mountain (11,600 ft.). Among the public buildings are a Carnegie library (1903, the library was established in 1891), with 10,000 volumes in 1909, and the county court house. There are two public parks, Lugo, near the centre of the city, and Meadowbrook, on the E. outskirts. San Bernardino is one of several places (Redlands, Highland, Rialto, Colton, Bloomington, Riverside, Pomona) that lie near together in part of the citrus fruit, alfalfa and grain region of S. California. The Santa Fé railway has extensive repair and construction shops here. San Bernardino is popularly known as the “Gate City of Southern California.” Five miles N. of the city, and connected with it by electric railway, at the base of a mountain on whose side is a great blaze shaped like an arrow-head, are the Arrowhead Hot Springs (196° F.), resembling the Carlsbad waters; the hotel at the Springs is heated by their waters. Other hot springs near San Bernardino are the Urbita, 1¼ m. S., and the Harlem, 4 m. N.E. About 1822 Spanish missionaries settled about 5 m. from the site of the present city and called their mission San Bernardino (from St Bernardin of Siena). In 1851 the Mormons established here a colony, which was abandoned in 1857. The county was organized in 1853 with the county-seat at San Bernardino, which was incorporated as a town in 1854. It was deprived of its charter in 1861, but received a new one in 1864. The Southern Pacific in 1876 gave the city connexion with the ocean, and the Santa Fé in 1885 connected it with the East. Under a state enactment in 1905 San Bernardino adopted a new charter which provides for the “recall” by petition, the initiative and the referendum.

SANCERRE, a town of central France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Cher, 34 m. N.E. of Bourges by rail. Pop. (1906) 2232. Sancerre, which gives its name to the small district of Sancerrois, is situated on an isolated vine-clad hill