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SANTA CRUZ—SANTA FÉ

de Chiquitos, adjacent to the sierras of that name, have long been used for this purpose. There are two river systems, one belonging to the Amazon and the other to the La Plata basins. The first includes the Guapay or Rio Grande, Piray or Sara, Yapacani and Maracó, upper tributaries of the Mamoré, and the San Miguel, Blanco, Baures and Paragua, tributaries of the Guaporé—both draining the western and northern parts of the department. In the extreme east a number of streams flow eastward into the Paraguay, the largest of which is the Otuquis; their channels are partly hidden in swamps and lagoons. The climate of the plains is hot and malarial, and the rainfall heavy. On the Andean slopes the temperature is more agreeable. Stockraising is followed to some extent on the plains. Other products of the western districts are sugar, rum, cacao, rice, cotton, coffee and indigo. Rubber and medicinal products are also exported. The Guapay is navigable for small boats in high water, and also the lower courses of the other rivers named, but they are of little service except in the transport of rubber. The principal markets for Santa Cruz products are in the Bolivian cities of the Andes where sugar, rum, cacao and coffee find a ready sale. There is a trade route across the plains from Santa Cruz de la Sierra to Puerto Suarez, on the Paraguay, and the Bolivian government contracted in 1908 for a railway between these two points (about 497 m.) but the traffic is inconsiderable.

The capital and only large town of the department is Santa Cruz de la Sierra (pop., in 1900, 15,874; in 1906, estimated, 20,535), on the Piray, a tributary of the Mamoré, 1450 ft. above sea-level, about 160 m. in a straight line N.E. of Sucre. It is situated on a lower terrace of the Andean slope in a highly fertile district, devoted to sugar-cane and stock-raising. It is a dusty, straggling, frontier town with rough habitations and a half civilized population, chiefly Indians and mestizos. It is the seat of a bishop and has a partly finished cathedral, seminary and mission station for the Indians. It has also a national college. There are flour mills, sugar mills, distilleries, tanneries and leather manufactories. The original site of Santa Cruz de la Sierra was in the uplands, but it was removed to its present site about 1590, the phrase “de la Sierra” being kept. It has been used as a centre for missionary work among the Indians and as a centre of trade. Expeditions to the Brazilian frontier or to the Chiquitos missions are fitted out here, and it is the objective point for expeditions entering Bolivia from Matto Grosso, Brazil, and Paraguay.

SANTA CRUZ, a city and the county-seat of Santa Cruz county, California, U.S.A., on the northern headland of the Bay of Monterey, about 75 m. S. of San Francisco. Pop. (1900) 5659 (1123 foreign-born); (1910) 11,146. It is served by the Southern Pacific railway. Santa Cruz is a popular seaside resort. The site of the city, which spreads back over bluffs and terraces to the foothills of the mountains (2000-3800 ft. in altitude), is very picturesque, and the scenery in the environs beautiful. Hills nearly enclose the city, protecting it from the ocean fogs. Monterey Bay has a remarkable variety of fish; and there is a large fish hatchery near the city. Fruits in great variety are grown in the valley and foothills. The mountains are covered with one of the noblest redwood forests of the state—the only one south of San Francisco; two groves, the Sempervirens Park (4000 acres) and the Fremont Grove of Big Trees, 5 m. from Santa Cruz, have been permanently preserved by the state. A Franciscan mission was established at Santa Cruz in 1791 and secularized in 1834, but was later destroyed. A pueblo or villa called Branciforte, one of the least important of the Spanish settlements (now a suburb of Santa Cruz), was founded in the vicinity in 1797, and before the American conquest was merged with the settlement that had grown up about the mission. The flag of the United States was raised over Santa Cruz in July 1846. The city was chartered in 1876.

SANTA CRUZ, an archipelago of the Pacific Ocean, in the division of Melanesia, belonging to Great Britain. It is a scattered group of small volcanic islands, irregularly disposed from N.W. to S.E. between 8° 31' and 11° 40' S., 165° 38' and 168° E. The total land area is 380 sq. m., and the population is estimated at 5000.

At the north-western extremity, separated by a deep channel from the Solomon Islands, the following islands are clustered: the Duff and Matema or Swallow groups, Analogo, Tinakula or Volcano Island and others; from these a single chain curves S.E. and then E., consist in of Nitendi or Santa Cruz, the largest island, Tupua or Edgecombe, Vanikoro (Recherche), Tucopia, Anuda (Cherry) and Fataka (Mitie). In Vanikoro there are volcanic mountains up to 3030 ft. in height, and Tinakula is a constantly active volcano of 2200 ft. Nitendi is of less elevation (1215 ft. at the highest). Coral reefs are not extensive, excepting those surrounding Vanikoro. The islands are densely wooded, and have a flora akin to that of New Guinea. The land fauna is very scanty; that of the sea extremely rich and valuable to the natives, who are skilled fishermen and navigators. The climate is hot and humid, and storms are frequent. The natives are of Papuan stock, with an intermixture of other blood; but an exception is found in the Duff group, Tucopia and Anuda, which are inhabited by pure Polynesians. The natives live in villages (sometimes fortified). In the past they have proved treacherous, and cannibalism is not extinct. The work of missionaries, however, has borne good fruit. The islands are included in the British protectorate of the Southern Solomons. Some trade in copra is carried on.

The islands were discovered by the Spaniard Alvaro Mendaña in 1595, in which year he attempted to found a colony on Nitendi, but died there on the 18th of October. In 1767 Philip Carteret visited the archipelago, and called it the Queen Charlotte Islands, a name still sometimes used. During the next century, owing to the practice of kidnapping them as labourers, the natives became so much embittered against foreigners that in 1871 they murdered Bishop John Coleridge Patteson on Nukapu, one of the Swallow group. In 1875 James Graham Goodenough, Commodore of the Australian station, was shot with a poisoned arrow on Nitendi during a cruise, and died of his wound. Patteson's murder, however, had roused public feeling in England; steps were taken to regulate the labour traffic, and subsequently Bishop John Selwyn was able to establish friendly relations with the natives. He erected the cross which commemorates his predecessor on Nukapu. The British protectorate was declared in 1898.

SANTA CRUZ, chief town and capital of the province of La Laguna, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on the S.E. shore of Laguna de Bay, about 35 m. S.E. of Manila. Pop. of the municipality (1903) 12,747. Santa Cruz has numerous fine buildings and a large trade with Manila by way of the lake and Pasig river. Agriculture and manufacturing are important pursuits, the town being noted for its manufacture of palm wine. The language is Tagalog.

SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFE, or De Santiago, a seaport and the capital of Teneriffe and of the Canary Islands; in 28° 28' N. and 16° 15' W., on the east coast. Pop. (1900) 38,419. Santa Cruz is the residence of the governor-general of the Canaries, the civil lieutenant-governor of the Teneriffe district, and the military governor of the island. It occupies a small plain bounded by rugged volcanic rocks, and seamed by watercourses which are dry almost throughout the year. Scarcely any vegetation, except cactuses and euphorbias, is to be seen in the neighbourhood. Almost the entire town was rebuilt in the 19th century, when its population more than trebled. The houses are generally low, with flat roofs; those of the better class are large, with a courtyard in the middle, planted with shrubs in the Spanish fashion. There are many good public buildings, including a school of navigation, technical institute, library, natural history museum and hospital. An aqueduct 5 m. long brings pure water from the mountains of the interior. Dromedaries from the adjacent islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are used to convey merchandise and in agricultural operations. The town is defended by modern forts, but its ancient batteries have also been preserved. It was bombarded by the, British fleet under Blake in 1657, and by Nelson, who lost his arm during the attack, in 1797. Some British flags lost on that occasion hang in one of the churches. The anchorage is good, and a mole facilitates landing. Santa Cruz is an important coaling station and commercial centre. (See Canary Islands.)

SANTA FÉ, the capital of New Mexico, U.S.A., and the county seat of Santa Fé county, about 20 m. E. of the Rio Grande, and 339 m. N. of El Paso, Texas. Pop. (1900) 5603, (256 foreign-