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by Hermbstadt (Berlin, 1793). The treatise on Air and Fire appeared in German, Leipzig and Upsala in 1777, and again in 1782; in English, by j. R. Forster (London, 1780); and in French, by Dietrich (Paris, 1781).

SCHEELITE, a mineral consisting of calcium tungstate, CaWO4. It was early known as “ tungsten ” (meaning in Swedish, “heavy stone ”), and is the mineral in which K. W. Scheele discovered tungstic acid, hence the name scheelite. Well-developed crystals are not infrequent; they usually have the form of acute tetragonal bi pyramids (P in fig.); sometimes other pyramid-faces are present, and these (g and n) being developed on only one side of P indicate

the parallel-faced hemihedrism of the

crystals. Compact and granular masses

also occur. The colour is usually yellowish white or brownish, the crystals sometimes

transparent to translucent; the lustre

vitreous to adamantine. The hardness is

4%, the specific gravity 6-o. Molybdenum

is usually present, replacing an equivalent amount of tungsten; and in a green

variety known as “ cupro-scheelite ” part

of the calcium is replaced by copper.

Scheelite usually occurs with topaz,

Huor, apatite, wolframite, &c., in tin bearing veins; and is sometimes found in association with gold. Fine crystals have been obtained from

Caldbeck Fells in Cumberland, Zinnwald and Elbogen in Bohemia, Guttannen in Switzerland, the Riesengebirge in Silesia, Dragoon Mountains inArizona and elsewhere. At Trumbull in Connecticut and Kimpu-san in japan large crystals of scheelite completely altered to wolframite have been found: those from japan have been called “ reinite."

SCHEEMAKERS, PETER (1691-1770), Flemish sculptor, was born in Antwerp, and learnt his art from his father and from Delvaux. After visiting Denmark and walking thence to Rome for purposes of study, he returned on foot to the port of embarkation for England, but stayed in London but a short while. From 1728 to 1735 he again sojourned in Rome and then settled in England, where he remained from 1735 to 1770, returning in the latter year to his native city where he died a few months afterwards. He worked for a time with Francis Bird, the pupil of Grinling Gibbons. Fifteen of his works-monuments, figures and busts-are in Westminster Abbey, two executed in collaboration with his master Delvaux: the “ Hugh Chamberlen ” (d. 1728, and therefore perhaps produced during his first visit to London) and “ Catherine, duchess of Buckinghamshire.” He is best, though not most creditably, known to fame by his monument to Shakespeare (1740), but as this work was designed by Kent the blame for the errors of taste therein displayed must not be laid to Scheemakers' account. In addition to these may be mentioned the monuments to Admiral Sir Charles Wager, Vice-Admiral Watson, Lieut.-General Percy Kirk, George Lord Viscount Howe, General Monck, and Sir Henry Belasye. His busts of John Dryden (1720) and Dr Richard Mead (1754), also in the Abbey, are among the best of his. smaller works. The most important of his monuments elsewhere, as mentioned by Walpole, are those to the 1st and 2nd dukes of Ancaster at Edenham, Lincolnshire; Lord Chancellor Hardwicke at Wimpole, Cambridgeshire; the duke of Kent, his wives and daughters, at Fletton, Bedfordshire; the earl of Shelburne, at Wycombe, Bucks; and the figure on the sarcophagus to Montague Sherrard Drake, at Amersham. Although less esteemed as an artist than Rysbrack and Roubiliac, Scheemakers was a very popular and widely-employed sculptor in his day, whose influence was considerable; he was the master of Nollekens, and left a son, Thomas Scheemakers, who produced a considerable amount of work, and exhibited in the Royal Academy from 1782-1864.

See Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, vol. 3 (ed. 1876), and Dictionary of National Biography.

SCHEFER, LEOPOLD (1784-1862), German poet and novelist, was born at Muskau in Lower Lusatia on the 3oth of July 1784, and educated at the gymnasium of Bautzen. In 1813, he was appointed manager of the estates of Prince Piickler-Muskau (q.'v.). The prince, recognizing the literary abilities of the young man, encouraged his early poetical efforts and gave him the means to travel. After visiting England, Italy, Greece and Turkey, Schefer returned in 1820 to Muskau, where he lived in easy circumstances and with abundant leisure for his literary pursuits, until his death on the 16th of February 1862. Schefer wrote a large number of short stories which appeared in several series, Novellen (5 vols., 1825-1829); Neue Novellen (4 vols., 1831-183 5); Lavabecher (2 vols., 1833); Kleine Romans (6 vols., 1836-1837). The historical novel Die Grdjin UUeld (2 vols., 1834), and the piquant satire, Die Sibylle von Mantua (1852), were published separately. But Schefer is less known for his novels which are lacking in plastic power and creative imagination, than for a volume of charming poems, Laienbrevier (1834-183 5). These, owing to their warmth of feeling and fascinating descriptions of the beauties of nature, at once established his fame as a poet. This vein, in closing imitation of his friend the poet Richard Georg Spiller von Hauenschild, known under the pseudonym Max Waldau (1822-1855), he followed in later years with the poems Vigilien (1843), Der Weltpriesler (1846), and Hausreden (1869). His Hajis in Hellas (Hamburg, 1853) and Koran der Liebe (Hamburg, 1855) contain with their glowing descriptions of the East, original poetry of a high order., A selection of Schefer's works, Ausgewzihlle Werke, in 12 vols., was published in 1845 (2nd ed., 1857). See j. Schmidt, Geschichte der deutschen Literatur im 19. Jalir/zunderl, vol. ii.; E. Brenning Leopold Schefer (1884); and L. Geiger in Diehter und Frauen (1896).

SCHEFFEL, JOSEPH VIKTOR VON (1826-1886), German poet and novelist, was born at Karlsruhe on the 16th of February 1826. His father, a retired major in the Baden army, was a civil engineer and member of the commission for regulating the course of the Rhine; his mother, née Josephine Krederer, the

daughter of a prosperous tradesman at Oberndorf on the Neckar, was a woman of great intellectual powers and of a romantic disposition. Young Scheffel was educated at the lyceum at Karlsruhe and afterwards (1843-1847) at the universities of Munich, Heidelberg and Berlin. After passing the state examination for admission to the judicial service, he graduated doctor juris and for four years (1848-1852) held an official position at Sackingen. Here he Wrote his poem Der Trompeter 'von S dckingen (1853), a romantic and humorous tale which immediately gained extraordinary popularity. It has reached more than 250 editions. Scheffel next undertook a journey to Italy. Returning home in 1853 he found his parents more than ever anxious that he should continue his legal career. But in 1854, defective eyesight incapacitated him; he quitted the government service and took up his residence at Heidelberg, with the intention of preparing himself for a post on the teaching staff of the university. His studies were, however, interrupted by eye disease, and in search of health he proceeded to Switzerland and took up his abode on the Lake of Constance, and elaborated the plan of his famous historical romance Ekkehard (1857); (Eng. trans. by S. Delffs, Leipzig, 1872). The first ideas for this work he got from the M onurnenla Gerrnaniae. It gained popularity hardly inferior to that of the T rompeler 'von Sackingen. In 1901 it had reached the 179th edition. Scheffel next returned to Heidelberg, and published Gaudearnus, Lieder aus dem Engeren und Weileren (1868), a collection of joyous and humorous songs, the matter for which is taken partly from German legends, partly from historical subjects. In these songs the author shows himself the light-hearted student, a friend of wine and song; and their success is unexampled in German literature and encouraged numerous imitators. For two years (1857-1859) Schefiel was custodian of the library of Prince Egon von Fürstenberg at Donaueschingen, but giving up his appointment in 1859, visited Joseph Freiherr von Lassberg, at Meersburg' on the Lake of Constance, stayed for a while with the grand duke Charles Alexander of Saxe-Weimar at the Wartburg in Thuringia, then, settling at Karlsruhe, he married in 1864 Caroline von Malzen, and, in 1872, retired to his Villa Seehalde near Radolfzell