work. He made an extremely paraphrastic, but, for his time, admirable English translation of the Koran (1734 and often reprinted), and had a European reputation as an orientalist. He died on the 13th of November 1736. His collection of oriental manuscripts is now in the Bodleian library, Oxford.
SALE, SIR ROBERT HENRY (1782-1845), British soldier, entered the 36th Foot in 1795, and went to India in 1798, as a lieutenant of the 12th Foot. His regiment formed part of Baird's brigade of Harris's army operating against Tippoo Sahib, and Sale was present at Mallavelly (Mallawalli) and Seringapatam, subsequently serving under Colonel Arthur Wellesley in the campaign against Dhundia. A little later the 12th was employed in the difficult and laborious attack on Paichi Raja. Promoted captain in 1806, Sale was engaged in 1808-1809 against the Raja of Travancore, and was at the two actions of Quilon, the storm of Travancore lines and the battle of Killianore. In 1810 he accompanied the expedition to Mauritius, and in 1813 obtained his majority. After some years he became major in the 13th, with which regiment he was for the rest of his life associated. In the Burmese War he led the 13th in all the actions up to the capture of Rangoon, in one of which he killed the enemy's leader in single combat. In the concluding operations of the war, being now lieutenant-colonel, he commanded a brigade, and at Malown (1826) he was severely wounded. For these services he received the C.B. In 1838, on the outbreak of the Afghan War, Brevet-Colonel Sale was assigned to the command of the 1st Bengal brigade of the army assembling on the Indus. His column arrived at Kandahar in April 1839, and in May it occupied the Herat plain. The Kandahar force next set out on its march to Kabul, and a month later Ghazni was stormed, Sale in person leading the storming column and distinguishing himself in single combat. The place was well provisioned, and on its supplies the army finished its march to Kabul easily. For his services Sale was made K.C.B. and received the local rank of major-general, as well as the Shah's order of the Duranee Empire. He was left, as second-in-command, with the army of occupation, and in the interval between the two wars conducted several small campaigns ending with the action of Parwan which led directly to the surrender of Dost Mahommed. By this time the army had settled down to the quiet life of cantonments, and Lady Sale and her daughter came to Kabul. But the policy of the Indian government in stopping the subsidy to the frontier tribes roused them into hostility, and Sale's brigade received orders to clear the line of communication to Peshawar. After severe fighting Sale entered Jalalabad on the 12th of November 1841. Ten days previously he had received news of the murder of Sir Alexander Burnes, along with orders to return with all speed to Kabul. These orders he, for various reasons, decided to ignore; suppressing his personal desire to return to protect his wife and family, he gave orders to push on, and on occupying Jalalabad at once set about making the old and half ruined fortress fit to stand a siege. There followed a close and severe investment rather than a siege, and the garrison's sorties were made usually with the object of obtaining supplies. At last Pollock and the relieving army appeared, only to find that the garrison had on the 7th of April 1842 relieved itself by a brilliant and completely successful attack on Akbar's lines. Sir Robert Sale received the G.C.B.; a medal was struck for all ranks of defenders, and salutes fired at every large cantonment in India. Pollock and Sale after a time took the offensive, and after the victory of Haft Kotal, Sale's division encamped at Kabul again. At the end of the war Sale received the thanks of parliament. In 1845, as quartermaster-general to Sir H. Gough's army, Sale again took the field. At Moodkee (Mudki) he was mortally wounded, and he died on the 21st of December 1845. His wife, who shared with him the dangers and hardships of the Afghan war, was amongst Akbar's captives. Amongst the few possessions she was able to keep from Afghan plunderers was her diary (Journal of the Disasters in Afghanistan, London, 1843).
Sir Gleig, Sale's Brigade in Afghanistan (London, 1846); Kaye, Lives of Indian Officers (London, 1867); W. Sale, Defence of Jellalabad (London, 1846); Regimental History of the 13th Light Infantry.
SALE, a town of Tanjil county, Victoria, Australia, the principal centre in the agricultural Gippsland district, on the river Thomson, 127½ m. by rail E.S.E. of Melbourne. Pop. (1901), 3462. It is the seat of the Anglican bishop of Gippsland, and contains the cathedral of the Roman Catholic bishop of Sale. Attached to its mechanics' institute are schools of mines, art and technology, and a fine free library. The finest buildings, excluding a number of handsome churches, are the Victoria Hall and the convent of Notre Dame de Sion. The Agricultural Society has excellent show grounds, in which meetings are annually held. Sale is the head of the Gippsland lakes navigation, the shipping being brought from the lakes to the town by canal. Daily communication is maintained with Cunningham at the lakes' entrance, and ocean-going steamers ply frequently between Sale and Melbourne.
SALE, an urban district in the Altrincham parliamentary division of Cheshire, England, 5 m. S.W. of Manchester. Pop. (1901), 12,088. It is served by the Manchester, South Junction & Altrincham and the London & North-Western railways, and the Cheshire Lines, and has become a large residential suburb of Manchester. At the beginning of the 19th century the greater part of the township was still waste and unenclosed. There are numerous handsome villas. Market gardening is carried on in the neighbourhood; and there are large botanical gardens.
SALEM, a city and district of British India, in the Madras presidency. The city is on both banks of the river Tirumanimuttar, 3 m. from a station on the Madras railway, 206 m. S.W. of Madras city. Pop. (1901), 70,621. There is a considerable weaving industry and some manufacture of cutlery. Its situation in a green valley between the Shevaroy and Jarugumalai hills is picturesque.
The District of Salem has an area of 7530 sq. m. Except towards the south it is hilly, with extensive plains- lying between the several ranges. It consists of three distinct tracts, formerly known as the Talaghat, the Baramahal and the Balaghat. The Talaghat is situated below the Eastern Ghats on the level of the Carnatic generally; the Baramahal includes the whole face of the Ghats and a wide piece of country at their base; and the Balaghat is situated above the Ghats on the tableland of Mysore.
The western part of the district is mountainous. Amongst the chief ranges (5000-6000 ft.) are the Shevaroys, the Kalrayans, the Melagiris, the Kollimalais, the Pachamalais and the Yelagiris. The chief rivers are the Cauvery with its numerous tributaries, and the Ponniar and Palar; the last, however, only flows through a few miles of the north-western corner of the district. The forests are of considerable value. The geological structure of the district is mostly gneissic, with a few irruptive rocks in the form of trap dikes and granite veins. Magnetic iron ore is common in the hill regions, and corundum and chromate of iron are also obtainable. The qualities of the soil differ very much; in the country immediately surrounding the town of Salem a thin layer of calcareous and red loam generally prevails, through which quartz rocks appear on the surface in many places. The climate, owing to the great difference of elevation, varies considerably; on the hills it is cool and bracing, and for a great part of the year very salubrious; the annual rainfall averages about 32 in.
The population in 1901 was 2,204,974, showing an increase of 12% in the decade. The principal crops are millets, rice, other food grains and oil-seeds, with a little cotton, indigo and tobacco. Coffee is grown on the Shevaroy hills. The chief irrigation work is the Barur tank system. Salem suffered severely from the famine of 1877-1878. The Madras railway runs through the district, with two narrow-gauge branches. The chief industry is cotton-weaving, and there is some manufacture of steel from magnetic iron ore. There are many saltpetre refineries, but no large industries. The district was acquired partly by the treaty of peace with Tippoo Sultan in 1792 and partly by the partition treaty of Mysore in 1799. By the former the Talaghat and Baramahal were ceded, and by the latter the Balaghat or what is now the Hosur taluk.
SALEM, a city and one of the county-seats (Lawrence is the other) of Essex county, Massachusetts, about 15 m. N.E. of Boston. Pop. (1900), 35,956, of whom 10,902 were foreign-born (including 4003 French Canadians, 3476 Irish, and 1585 English