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SALISBURY—SALLUST

Tuesday, but in 12588 this was reported as of bad character and it is now discontinued. A grant of a weekly market on Tuesday was obtained from Henry III. in 1227. In 1240 this privilege was being abused, a daily market being held, which was finally prohibited in 1361. In 1316 a market on Saturday was granted by Edward II. and in 1656 another on every second Tuesday by Cromwell. In 1769 a wholesale cloth market was appointed to be held yearly on August 24. In 1888 and 1891 the market days were Tuesday and Saturday. A great corn market is now held every Tuesday, a cattle market on alternate Tuesdays, and acheese market on the second Thursday in the month. Salisbury returned two members to parliament until 1885 when the number was reduced to one. As early as 1334 the town took part in foreign trade and was renowned for its breweries and woollen manufactories, and the latter industry continued until the 17th century, but has now entirely declined. Commercial activity gave rise to numerous confraternities amongst the various trades, such as those of the tailors, Weavers and cutlers. The majority originated under Edward IV., though the most ancient-that of the tailors-was said to have been formed under Henry VI. and still existed in 1835. The manufacture of cutlery, once a flourishing industry, is now decayed.

See Victoria County History. Wiltshire; Sir R. C. Hoare, History of New Sarum (1843); and History of Old Sarum (1843).


SALISBURY, a town and the county-seat of Wicomico county, Maryland, U.S.A., on the Wicomico river, about 23 m. from its mouth. Pop. (1900) 4277, including 1006 negroes; (1910) 6690. It is served by the Baltimore, Chesapeake & Atlantic (which has shops here), and the New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk railways, and by steamers on the Wicomico river, which has a channel 9 ft. deep; Salisbury is the head of navigation. Grain, vegetables and lumber a, re shipped along the coast. Salisbury was founded in 1732, organized as a town in 1812, and incorporated in 1854 and again in 1888.


SALISBURY, a city and the county-seat of Rowan county, North Carolina, U.S.A., about 120 m. W. by S. of Raleigh. Pop. (1890) 4418; (1900) 6277 (2408 negroes); (1910) 7153. Salisbury is served by the Southern railway, which has repair shops here. It is the seat ~ of Livingstone College (African Methodist Episcopal, removed from Concord to Salisbury in 1882, chartered 1885). There is a national cemetery here, in which 12,147 Federal soldiers are buried. The city has various manufactures and is the trade centre of the surrounding farming country. Salisbury was founded about 1753, was first incorporated as a town in 1755 and first chartered as a city in 1770. During the Civil War there was a Confederate military prison here. On the 'I2l'.h of April 1865 the main body of General George Stoneman's cavalry encountered near Salisbury a force of about 3000 Confederates under General William M. Gardner, and captured 1364 prisoners and 14 pieces of artillery.


SALISHAN, the name of a linguistic family of North American Indian tribes, the more important of which are the Salish (Flatheads), Bellacoola, Clallam, Colville, Kalispel, Lummi, Nisqually, Okinagan, Puyallup, Quinault, Sanpoil, Shushwap, Skokomish, Songeesh, Spokan and Tulalip. They number about 20,000, and live in the southern part of British Columbia, the coast of Oregon, and the north-west of Washington, Montana and Idaho.


SALLI (Sld), a seaport on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, on the north side of the Bu Ragrag opposite Rabat (qsv). Pop. about 30,000. The shrine of Sidi Abd Allah Hasun in Salli is so sacred as to close the street in which it stands to any but Moslems. Outside the town walls there is no security for life or property. A bar at the mouth of the river excludes vessels of more than two hundred tons; steamers lie outside, communicating with the port by lighters of native build manned by descendants of the pirates known as “Salli Rovers.” (See Bsnmnv PIRATES.)


SALLO, DENIS DE, Sieur de la Coudraye [pseudonym Sieur d'Hédon'ville] (1626-1669), French writer, and founder of the first French literary and scientific journal, was born at Paris in 1626. In 1665 he published the first number of the Journal des savants. The Journal, under his direction, was suppressed . after the thirteenth number, but was revived shortly afterwards. He died in Paris on the 14th of May 1669.


SALLUST [Gaius Crispus] (86-34 B.C.), Roman historian, belonging to a well-known plebeian family, was born at Amiternum in the country of the Sabines. After an ill-spent youth he entered public life, and was elected tribune of the people in 52, the year in which Clodius was killed in a street brawl by the followers of Milo. ' Sallust was opposed to Milo and to Pompey's party and to the old aristocracy of Rome. From the first he was a decided partisan of Caesar, to whom he owed such political advancement as he attained. In 50 he was removed from the senate by the censor Appius Claudius Pulcher on the ground of gross immorality, the real reason probably being his friendship for Caesar. In the following year, no doubt through Caesar's influence, he was reinstated and appointed quaestor. In 46 he was praetor, and accompanied Caesar in his African campaign, which ended in the decisive defeat of the remains of the Pompeian party at Thapsus. As a reward for his services, Sallust was appointed governor of the province of Numidia; In this capacity he was guilty of such oppression and extortion that only the influence of Caesar enabled him to escape condemnation. On his return to Rome he purchased and laid out in great splendour the famous gardens on the Quirinal known as the H orti Sallustiani. He now retired from public life and devoted himself to historical literature. His account of the Catiline conspiracy (De conjuration Catilinae or Bellum Catilinariurn) and of the Iugurthine War (Bellum Jugurthinum) have come down to us complete, together with fragments of his larger and most important Work (Historiae), a history of Rome from 78-67, intended as a continuation of L. Cornelius Sisenna's work. The Catiline Conspiracy (his first published work) contains the history of the memorable year 63. Sallust adopts the usually accepted view of Catiline, and describes him as the deliberate foe of law, order and morality, without attempting to give any adequate explanation of his views and intentions. Catiline, it must be remembered, had supported the party of Sulla, to which Sallust was opposed. There may be truth in Mommsen's suggestion that he was particularly anxious to clear his patron Caesar of all complicity in the conspiracy. Anyhow, the subject gave him the opportunity of showing off his rhetoric at the expense of the old Roman aristocracy, whose degeneracy he delighted to paint in the blackest colours. On the whole, he is not unfair towards Cicero. His Jugurthine War, again, though a valuable and interesting monograph, is not a satisfactory performance. We may assume that he had collected materials and put together notes for it during his governorship of Numidia. Here, too, he dwells upon the feebleness of the senate and aristocracy}'too often in a tiresome, moralizing and philosophizing vein, but as a military history the work is unsatisfactory in the matter of geographical and chronological details. The extant fragments of the Histories (some discovered in 1886) are enough to show the political partisan, who took a keen plea.sure in describing the reaction against the dictator's policy and legislation after his death. The loss of the work is to be regretted, as it must have thrown much light on a very eventful period, embracing the war against Sertorius, the campaigns of Lucullus against Mithradates of Pontus, and the victories of the great Pompey in the East. Two letters (Duae epistolae de republic ordinands), letters of political counsel and advice addressed to Caesar, and an attack upon Cicero (Invectiva or Declamatio in Ciceronem), frequently attributed to Sallust, are probably the work of a rhetorician of the first century A.D., also the author of a counter-invective by Cicero. Sallust is highly spoken of by Tacitus (Annals, iii. 3o); and Quintilian (ii. 5, x. 1), who regards him as superior to Livy, does not hesitate to put him on a level with Thucydides On the whole the verdict of antiquity was favourable to Sallust as an historian. He struck out for himself practically a new line in literature, his predecessors having been little better than mere dry-as-dust chroniclers, whereas he endeavoured to explain

the Connexion and meaning of events, and was a successful delineator of character. The contrast between his early life