Page:EB1911 - Volume 28.djvu/1062

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1035
ZOOLOGY


Grade b. Embolobranchia (or Aeropneusta).
Section. Pectinifera.
Order: Scorpionidea.
Section. Epectinata.
Orders: Pedipalpi, Araneae, Palpigradi, Solifugae, Pseudoscorpiones, Podogona, Opiliones, Rnynchostomi (Acari).
Class 3. Tardigrada (q.v.).
No Orders.
Class 4. Linguatalina (see Pentastomida).
No Orders.
Phylum 12. Echinoderma (see Echinoderms).
Branch A. Pelmatozoa.
Class 1. Cystidea.
Orders: Amphoridea, Carpoidea, Rhombifera, Aporita, Diploporita.
Class 2. Blastoidea.
Divisions: Protoblastoidea, Eublastoidea.
No Orders.
Class 3. Crinoidea.
Orders: Monocyclica Inadunata, Adunata, Monocyclica Camerata, Dicydica Inadunata, Flexibilia, Dicyclica Camerata.
Class 4. Edrioasteroidea.
No Orders.
Branch B. Eleutherozoa.
Class I. Holothuroidea.
Orders: Aspidochirota, Dendrochirota.
Class 2. Stelliformia.
Sub-class I. Asterida.
Orders: Phanerozonia, Cryptozonia.
Sub-class 2. Ophiurida.
Orders: Streptophiurae, Zygophiurae, Cladophiurae.
Class 3. Echinoidea.
Orders: Bothriocidaroida, Melonitoida, Gystocidaroida, Cidaroida, Diademoida, Holectypoida, Spatangoida, Clypeastroida.
Phylum 13. Vertebrata (q.v.).
Sub-phylum a. Hemichorda (q.v.).
Class. Enteropneusta (see Balanoglossus).
No Orders.
Sub-phylum b. Urochorda.
Class. Tunicata (q.v.).
Orders: Larvacea, Thaliacea (Sub-orders: Cyclomyaria, Hemimyaria), Ascidiacea (Sub-orders: Ascidiae Simplices, Ascidiae Compositae, Ascidiae Luciae).
Sub-phylum c. Cephalochorda (see Amphioxus).
Class. Cephalochorda.
No Orders.
Sub-phylum d. Craniata.[1]
Class 1. Pisces (see Ichthyology).
Sub-class 1. Cyclostomata (q.v.).
Orders: Myxinoides (or Hyperotreti), Petromyzontes (or Hyperoartii).
Sub-class 2. Selachia or Elasmobranchii (see Selachians).
Orders: Pleuropterygii, Acanthodii, Ichthyotomi, Plagiostomi, Holocephali.
Sub-class 3. Teleostoma.
Orders: Ganoidea, Crossopterygii, Dipneusti, Teleostei.
Class 2. Batrachia (q.v.).
Orders: Stegocephalia, Apoda (or Peromela), Caudata (or Urodela), Ecaudata (or Anura).
Class 3. Reptilia (see Reptiles).
Orders: Anomodontia, Chelonia, Samopterygia, Ichthyopterygia, Rhyncocephalia, Dinosauria, Crocodilia, Ornithosauria, Squamata.
Class 4. Aves (see Bird and Ornithology).
Sub-class 1. Archaeornithes.
No Orders.
Sub-class 2. Neornithes.
Division 1. Ratitae.
Orders: Struthiones, Rheae, Casuariae, Apteryges, Dinornithes, Aepyomithes.
Division 2. Odontolcae.
No Orders.
Division 3. Carinatae.
Orders: Ichthyornes, Colymbiformes, Sphenisciformes, Procellariiformes, Ciconiiformes, (Sub-orders: Steganopodes, Ardeae, Ciconiae, Phoenicopteri). Anserifermes (Sub-orders: Palamedeae, Anseres), Falconiformes (Sub-orders: Cathartae, Accipitres), Tinamiformes, Galliformes (Sub-orders: Mesites, Turnices, Galli, Opisthocomi), Gruiformes, Charadriiformes (Sub-orders: Limicolae, Lari, Pterocles, Columbae), Cuculiformes (Sub-orders: Cuculi, Psittaci), Coraciiformes (Sub-orders: Coraciae, Striges, Caprimulgi, Cypseli, Colii, Trogones, Pici), Passeriformes (Sub-orders: Passeres Anisomyodae, Passeres Diacromyodae).
Class 4. Mammalia (q.v.).
Sub-class 1. Monotremata (q.v.) (Prototheria).
No Orders.
Sub-class 2. Marsupialia (q.v.) (Metatheria).
One Order: Marsupialia.
Sub-orders: Polyprotodonta, Paucituberculata, Diprotodonta.
Sub-class 3. Placentalia (Monodelphia, q.v. or Eutheria).
Orders: Insectivora, Chiroptera, Dermoptera, Edentata (Sub-orders: Xenarthra, Pholidota, Tubulidentata), Rodentia (Sub-orders: Duplicidentata, Simplicidentata), Tillodontia, Carnivora (Sub-orders: Fissipedia, Pinnipedia, Creodonta), Cetacea (Sub-orders: Archaeoceti, Odontoceti, Mystacoceti), Sirenia, Ungulata (Sub-orders: Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, Barypoda, Toxodontia, Amblypoda, Litopterna, Ancylopoda, Condylarthra, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla), Primates (Sub-orders: Prosimiae, Anthropoidea).
Phylum 14. Mesozoa (q.v.).
Class 1. Rhombozoa.
No Orders.
Class 2. Orthonectida.
No Orders.

Phylum 15. Polyzoa (q.v.).

Class 1. Entoprocta.
No Orders.
Class 2. Ectoprocta.
Orders: Gymnolaemata (Sub-orders: Tripostomata, Cryptostomata, Cyclostomata, Ctenostomata, Cheilostomata), Phylactolaemata.

Phylum 16. Acanthocephala (q.v.).

Class. Acanthocephala.
No Orders.

Phylum 17. Podaxonia.

Class 1. Sipunculoidea (q.v.).
No Orders.
Class 2. Priapuloidea (q.v.).
No Orders.
Class 3. Phoronidea (q.v.).
No Orders.
Class 4. Pterobranchia (q.v.).
No Orders.
Class 5. Brachiopoda (q.v.).
Sub-class 1. Ecardines (Inarticulata).
Orders: Atremata, Neotremata.
Sub-class 2. Testicardines (Articulata).
Orders: Protremata, Telotremata.

Phylum 18. Gastrotricha (q.v.).

Class. Gastrotricha.
Sub-orders: Ichthydina, Cepodina. (Possibly Kinorhyncha (q.v.) with only Echinoderes is to be placed here).

General Tendencies since Darwin

Darwin may be said to have founded the science of bionomics, and at the same time to have given new stimulus and new direction to morphography, physiology, and plasmology, by uniting them as contributories to one common biological doctrine—the doctrine of organic evolution—itself but a part of the wider doctrine of universal evolution based on the laws of physics and chemistry. The immediate result was, as pointed out above, a reconstruction of the classification of animals upon a genealogical basis, and an investigation of the individual development of animals in relation to the steps of their gradual building up by cell-division, with a view to obtaining evidence of their genetic relationships. On the other hand, the studies which occupied Darwin himself so largely subsequently to the publication of the Origin of Species, viz. the explanation of animal (and vegetable) mechanism, colouring, habits, &c., as advantageous to the species or to its ancestors, are only gradually being carried further. The most important work in this direction has been done by Fritz Müller (Für Darwin), by Herman Müller (Fertilization of Plants by Insects),

  1. Craniata may be usefully divided into 3 grades: (a) Branchiata Hetcrodactyla, which includes Pisces except Cyclostomes. (b) Branchiata Pentadactyla, which includes Batrachia. (c) Lipobranchia Pentadactyla, which includes Reptiles, Birds and Mammals.