amongst all the forms of Hiphʿîl and Hophʿal, only the imperfect Hophʿal should have been preserved. A passive of Qal is also indicated in the Tellel-Amarna letters, according to Knudtzon, by a number of imperfect forms, which are undoubtedly due to Canaanite influence, cf. Beitr. zur Assyriologie, iv. 410.
[54a] 1. The Hithpaʿēl is connected with Piʿēl, being formed by prefixing to the Piʿēl-stem (qaṭṭēl, qaṭṭal) the syllable הִתְ (Western Aramaic אִתְ, but in Biblical Aramaic הִתְ; Syr. ’et ). Like the preformative (הִנְ) נ of Niphʿal, הִתְ has also a reflexive force.
[54b] 2. The ת of the prefix in this conjugation, as also in Hothpaʿal (see h), Hithpôēl, Hithpa‛lēl and Hithpalpel (§ 55), under certain circumstances, suffers the following changes:
(a) When the stem begins with one of the harder sibilants ס, צ, or ש, the ת and the sibilant change places (cf. on this metathesis, §19n), and at the same time the ת after a צ becomes the corresponding emphatic ט: thus הִשְׁתַּמֵּר to take heed to oneself, for הִתְשַׁמֵּר; הִסְתַּבֵּל to become burdensome, for הִתְסַבֵּל; הִצְטַדֵּק to justify oneself, from צָדַק. The only exception is in Jer 493, וְהִתְשׁוֹטַ֫טְנָה, to avoid the cacophony of three successive t-sounds.
[54c] (b) When the stem begins with a d- or t-sound (ד, ט, ת), the ת of the preformative is assimilated to it (§19d), e.g. מִדַּבֵּר speaking, conversing; הִדַּכָּא to be crushed, הִטַּהֵר to purify oneself, הִטַּמֵּא to defile oneself, הִתַּמֵּם to act uprightly. (An exception occurs in Ju 1922.) The assimilation of the ת occurs also with נ and כ, e.g. הִנַּבֵּא to prophesy, as well as הִתְנַבֵּא (cf. Nu 247, Ez 513, Dn 1114); תִּכַּוֹנֵן Nu 2127 (cf. Is 5414, ψ 595); תִּכַּסֶּה Pr 2626; with שׁ Ec 716 with ר Is 3310.
[54d] Rem. Metathesis would likewise be expected, as in the cases under b, when ת and ז come together, as well as a change of ת to ד. Instead of this, in the only instance of the kind (הִזַּכּוּ Is 116) the ת is assimilated to the ז, —unless indeed הִזַּ֫כּוּ, imperative Niphʿal of זכך, is intended.
3. As in form, so also in meaning, Hithpaʿēl is primarily (a) reflexive of Piēl, e.g. הִתְאַזֵּר to gird oneself, הִתְקַדֵּשׁ to sanctify oneself. Although in these examples the intensive meaning is not distinctly marked, it is so in other cases, e.g. הִתְנַקֵּם to how oneself revengeful (Niph. simply to take revenge), and in the numerous instances where the Hithpaʿēl expresses to make oneself that which is predicated by the stem, to conduct oneself as such, to show oneself, to imagine oneself, to