Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/175

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9:6, 16:10.—Like the Piʿēl תְּקַטַּ֫לְנָה (§52n), forms occur in Hithpaʿēl like תִּתְהַלַּ֫כְנָה Zc 67; cf. Am 813, and so in Hithpoʿēl, Jer 493, Am 913; with ē only in La 41.—In the Aramaic manner an infinitive Hithpaʿēl הִתְחַבְּרוּת occurs in Dn 1123 (cf. the Hiphʿîl inf. הַשְׁמָעוּת in Ez 2426).

 [54l]  2. As instances of the reflexive הִתְקַטֵּל (connected with Piʿēl) a few reflexive forms of the verb פָּקַד (to examine) are also probably to be reckoned. Instead of a Pathaḥ in a sharpened syllable after the first radical, these take Qameṣ in an open syllable, e.g. הִתְפָּֽקְדוּ Ju 2015.17, imperfect יִתְפָּקֵד 2015, 219. The corresponding passive form הָתְפָּֽקְדוּ also occurs four times, Nu 147, 233, 2662, 1 K 2027. According to others, these forms are rather reflexives of Qal, in the sense of to present oneself for review, to be reviewed, like the Aramaic ʾIthpeʿēl (Western Aramaic אִתְקְטֵל, Syr. אֶתְקְטֵל) and the Ethiopic taqatela, Arab. ʾiqtatala, the last with the t always placed after the first radical (cf. above, b); but they are more correctly explained, with König, as Hithpaʿēl forms, the doubling of the ק being abnormally omitted.—Such a reflexive of Qal, with the ת transposed, occurs in הלתחם (on the analogy of O.T. Hebrew to be pronounced הִלְתַּחֵם) in the inscription of the Moabite king Mêšaʿ, with the meaning of the O.T. Niphʿal נִלְחַם to fight, to wage war: see the inscription, lines 11, 15, 19, and 32; in the first two places in the imperfect with wāw consecutive וָֽאֶלְתַּחֵם; in line 19 in the infinitive with suffix, בְּהִלְתַּֽחֲמֹה בִי in his fighting against me.

§55. Less Common Conjugations.

 [55a]  Of the less common conjugations (§39g) some may be classed with Piʿēl, others with Hiphʿîl. To the former belong those which arise from the lengthening of the vowel or the repetition of one or even two radicals, in fact, from an internal modification or development of the stem; to the latter belong those which are formed by prefixing a consonant, like the ה of Hiphʿîl. Amongst the conjugations analogous to Piʿēl are included the passive forms distinguished by their vowels, as well as the reflexives with the prefix הִתְ, on the analogy of Hithpaʿēl.

 [55b]  The following conjugations are related to Piʿēl, as regards their inflexion and partly in their meaning:

1. Pôʿēl קוֹטֵל, passive Pôʿal קוֹטַל, reflexive Hithpôʿēl הִתְקוֹטֵל, corresponding to the Arabic conj. iii. qâtălă, pass. qûtĭlă, and conj. vi. reflexive tăqâtălă; imperfect יְקוֹטֵל, participle מְקוֹטֵל, imperfect passive יְקוֹטַל &c. Hence it appears that in Hebrew the ô of the first syllable is in all the forms obscured from â, while the passive form is distinguished simply by the a-sound in the second syllable. In the strong verb these conjugations are rather rare. Examples: participle מְשֹֽׁפְטִי mine adversary, who would contend with me, Jb 915; טְלֽוֹשְׁנִי (denominative from לָשׁוֹן the tongue) slandering (as if intent on injuring with the tongue) ψ 1015 Keth. (The Qe requires מְלָשְׁנִי melŏšnî as Na 13 וּגְדָול־); זֽׄרְמוּ they have poured out, ψ 7718 (if not rather Puʿal); יוֹדַ֫עְתִּי I have appointed, 1 S 213 (unless הוֹדַ֫עְתִּי should be read); יְסֹעֵר Ho 133; שֹׁרֵשׁ to take root, passive