Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/188

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חַקְטֵל, but הַקְטִיל (with î on account of the open syllable, cf. §60g), e.g. הַקְרִיבֵ֫הוּ present it, Mal 18.

 [61h3. Like the infinitives, the participles can also be united with either verbal or noun-suffixes; see §116f. In both cases the vowel of the participles is shortened or becomes Še before the suffix, as in the corresponding noun-forms, e.g. from the form קֹטֵל: רֹֽדְפִי, רֹֽדְפוֹ, &c.; but before Šewâ mobile יֹֽצֶרְךָ, &c., or with the original ĭ, אֹֽיִבְךָ Ex 234, &c., אֹֽסִפְךָ 2 K 2220 (coinciding in form with the 1st sing. imperfect Qal, 1 S 156; cf. §68h); with a middle guttural (גֹּֽאֲלִי), גֹּֽאַלְךָ; with a third guttural, בֹּרַֽאֲךָ Is 431, but שֹׁלֵֽחֲךָ, מְשַׁלֵּֽחֲךָ Jer 2816, cf. §65d. The form מְקַטֵּל, with suffix מְקַטְּלִי; before Še sometimes like מְלַמֶּדְךָ Is 4817, מְנַחֶמְכֶם 5112, sometimes like מְאַסִּפְכֶם 5212. In Is 4710 רֹאָ֫נִי is irregular for רֹאֵ֫נִי; instead of the meaningless כֻּלֹּה מְקַלְלַֽוְנִי Jer 1510 read כֻּלְּהֶם קִלְל֫וּנִי.

Also unusual (see above, d) with participles are the suffixes of the 2nd sing. masc. with נ‍ energicum, as עוֹנֶ֫ךָּ Jb 51; cf. Dt 85, 1214.28.

§62. Verbs with Gutturals.

Brockelmann, Grundriss, p. 584 ff.

Verbs which have a guttural for one of the three radicals differ in their inflexion from the ordinary strong verb, according to the general rules in §22. These differences do not affect the consonantal part of the stem, and it is, therefore, more correct to regard the guttural verbs as a subdivision of the strong verb. At the most, only the entire omission of the strengthening in some of the verbs middle guttural (as well as in the imperfect Niphʿal of verbs first guttural) can be regarded as a real weakness (§§63h, 64e). On the other hand, some original elements have been preserved in guttural stems, which have degenerated in the ordinary strong verb; e.g. the ă of the initial syllable in the imperfect Qal, as in יַחְמֹד, which elsewhere is attenuated to ĭ, יִקְטֹל.—In guttural verbs א and ה are only taken into consideration when they are actual consonants, and not vowel-letters like the א in some verbs פ״א (§68), in a few ע״א (§73g), and in most ל״א (§74). In all these cases, however, the א was at least originally a full consonant, while the ה in verbs ל״ה was never anything but a vowel letter, cf. §75. The really consonantal ה at the end of the word is marked by Mappîq.—Verbs containing a ר also, according to §22q, r, share some of the peculiarities of the guttural verbs. For more convenient treatment, the cases will be distinguished, according as the guttural is the first, second, or third radical. (Cf. the Paradigms D, E, F, in which only those conjugations are omitted which are wholly regular.)