Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/193

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§64. Verbs Middle Guttural, e.g. שָׁחַט to slaughter.

 [64a]  The slight deviations from the ordinary inflexion are confined chiefly to the following[1]:—

1. When the guttural would stand at the beginning of a syllable with simple Še, it necessarily takes a Ḥaṭeph, and almost always Ḥaṭeph-Pathaḥ, e.g. perfect שָֽׁחֲטוּ, imperfect יִשְׁחֲטוּ, imperative Niphʿal הִשָּֽׁחֲטוּ. In the imperative Qal, before the afformatives î and û, the original Pathaḥ is retained in the first syllable, and is followed by Ḥaṭeph-Pathaḥ, thus, זַֽעֲקִי, זַֽעֲקוּ, &c.; in אֶֽהֱבוּ the preference of the א for Seghôl (but cf. also יֹֽאחֱזוּךְ Jer 1321) has caused the change from ă to ĕ; in שִֽׁחֲדוּ Jb 622, even ĭ remains before a hard guttural.

So in the infinitive Qal fem., e.g. אַֽהֲבָה to love, דַּֽאֲבָה to pine; and in the infinitive with a suffix לְסַֽעֲדָהּ Is 96; the doubtful form שַֽׁחֲטָה Ho 52, is better explained as infinitive Piʿēl (= שַֽׁחֲתָה).

 [64b2. Since the preference of the gutturals for the a-sound has less influence on the following than on the preceding vowel, not only is Ḥolem retained after the middle guttural in the infinitive Qal שְׁחֹט (with the fem. ending and retraction and shortening of the o רָחְצָה and רָֽחֳקָה cf. §45b), but generally also the Ṣere in the imperfect Niphʿal and Piʿēl, e.g. יִלָּחֵם he fights, יְנַחֵם he comforts, and even the more feeble Seghôl after wāw consecutive in such forms as וַיִּלָּ֫חֶם, וַתִּפָּ֫עֶם Gn 418 (cf., however, וַיִּוָּעַ֫ץ 1 K 126, &c.). But in the imperative and imperfect Qal, the final syllable, through the influence of the guttural, mostly takes Pathaḥ, even in transitive verbs, e.g. שְׁחַט, יִשְׁחַט; זְעַק, יִזְעַק; בְּחַר, יִבְחַר; with suffixes (according to §60c), imperative בְּחָנֵ֫נִי, שְׁאָל֫וּנִי, imperfect יִגְאָלוּ֫הוּ.

 [64c]  With ō in the imperative Qal, the only instances are נְעֹל 2 S 1317; אֱחֹז Ex 44, 2 S 221, fem. אֶֽחֳזִי Ru 315 (with the unusual repetition of the lost ō as Ḥaṭeph-Qameṣ; 2nd plur. masc. in pause אֱחֹ֑זוּ Neh 73; without the pause אֶֽחֱזוּ Ct 215); סְעָד־ Ju 198.[2] Finally זֹֽעֲמָה for זָֽעֳמָה, Nu 237, is an example of the same kind, see §63p. Just as rare are the imperfects in ō of verbs middle guttural, as יִנְהֹם, יֶֽאֱחֹז, תִּמְעֹל Lv 515, Nu 527 (but וַיִּמְעַל 2 Ch 2616); cf. וַתִּשְׁחֳדִי Ez 1633; תִּפְעָל־ Jb 356. Also in the perfect Piʿēl, Pathaḥ occurs somewhat more frequently than in the strong verb, e.g. נִחַם to comfort (cf., however, כִּהֵן, כִּחֵד, כִּחֵשׁ, שִׁחֵת);

  1. Hophʿal, which is not exhibited in the paradigm, follows the analogy of Qal; Hiphʿîl is regular.
  2. Also Ju 195 (where Qimḥi would read seʿād), read seʿŏd, and on the use of the conjunctive accent (here Darga) as a substitute for Metheg, at. §9u (c) and §16b.