Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/226

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Klostermann after the LXX. In Dn 811 the Kethîbh הדים is intended for a perfect Hiphʿîl. There is also a distinction in meaning between יָלִין to spend the night, to remain, and יַלִּין Ex 167 Qe (Kethîbh תּלּוֹנוּ; conversely, verse 2 Kethîbh יַלִּ֫ינוּ, Qe יִלּ֫וֹנוּ), participle מַלִּין Ex 168, Nu 1427, 1720, to be stubborn, obstinate: in the latter sense from the form יָלִין only וַיָּ֫לֶן is found, Ex 173. Other examples are Niphʿal נִמּוֹל he was circumcised, Gn 1726 f.; participle 3422 (from מוּל, not נָמַל); נֵעוֹר he is waked up, Zc 217 (see above, v); Hiphʿîl הִזִּיל֫וּהַ La 18; יַלִּ֫יזוּ Pr 421.

 [72ff]  Perhaps the same explanation applies to some forms of verbs first guttural with Dageš forte implicitum, which others derive differently or would emend, e.g. וַתַּ֫חַשׁ for וַתָּ֫חַשׁ and she hastened (from חוּשׁ) Jb 315; וַיַּ֫עַט (another reading is וַיָּ֫עַט), וַתַּ֫עַט 1 S 1519, 2514 (1432 Qe) from עוּט or עִיט to fly at anything. Both, as far as the form is concerned, would be correct apocopated imperfects from חָשָׁה and עָטָה (ל״ה), but these stems only occur with a wholly different meaning.

 [72gg]  10. Verbs with a consonantal Wāw for their second radical, are inflected throughout like the strong form, provided the first or third radical is not a weak letter, e.g. חָוַר, imperfect יֶֽחֱוַר to be white; גָּוַע, imperfect יִגְוַע to expire; רָוַח to be wide; צָוַח to cry; Piʿēl עִוֵּל, imperfect יְעַוֵּל to act wickedly; עִוֵּת to bend, Hithpaʿēl הִתְעַוֵּת to bend oneself; and this is especially the case with verbs which are at the same time ל״ה, e.g. צָוָה, Piʿēl צִוָּה to command, קִוָּה to wait, רָוָה to drink, Piʿēl רִוָּה (on אֲרַיָּ֫וֶךְ Is 169, see §75dd) and Hiphʿîl הִרְוָה to give to drink, &c.

§73. Verbs middle i (vulgo ע״י), e.g. בִּין to discern. Paradigm N.

 [73a1. These verbs agree, as regards their structure, exactly with verbs ע״וּ, and in contrast to them may be termed ע״י, or more correctly, ʿayin-î verbs, from the characteristic vowel of the impf., imper., and infin. constr. This distinction is justified in so far as it refers to a difference in the pronunciation of the imperfect and its kindred forms, the imperative and infin. constr.—the ע״וּ verbs having û lengthened from original ŭ and ע״י having î lengthened from original ĭ. In other respects verbs ע״י simply belong to the class of really monosyllabic stems, which, by a strengthening of their vocalic element, have been assimilated to the triliteral form[1] (§67a). In the perfect Qal the monosyllabic stem, as in ע״וּ, has ā lengthened from ă, thus: שָׁת he has set; infinitive שִׁית, infinitive absolute שׁוֹת, imperative שִׁית, imperfect יָשִׁית, jussive יָשֵׁת (§48g), imperfect consecutive וַיָ֫שֶׁת.—The perfect Qal of some verbs

  1. That verbs ע״וּ and ע״י are developed from biliteral roots at a period before the differentiation of the Semitic languages is admitted even by Nöldeke (Beiträge zur sem. Sprachwiss., Strassburg, 1904, p. 34 ff.), although he contests the view that בִּינֹ֫תִי and רִיב֫וֹתָ are to be referred to Hiphʿîl with the preformative dropped.