Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/300

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 [94e]  Paradigm IV: originally changeable vowel in the first syllable, unchangeable in the second, (a) גְּדֹלָה magna, חֲסִידָה stork, properly pia; בְּתוּלָה virgin, properly seiuncta; (b) עֲנִיָה misera.

 [94f2. A simple ת is added as feminine ending in forms like בְּכִית weeping (masc. בְּכִי, §93x, a), בְּרִית covenant; but feminine participles of verbs ל״א, as יׄצֵאת, מֹצֵאת, may be due to contraction from yôṣèʾet, &c. (hardly to lengthening of the ĭ in the ground-form môṣi), whilst forms like מֽוֹצְאֵת, נֽשְֹׁאֵת (see §74i) are to be explained on the analogy of the forms treated in §93t. Apart from the ל״ה formations, we find the simple ת in the participle מְשָׁרַת 1 K 115, contracted from מְשָׁרַתְתְּ. But וְיׄלַדְתְּ Gn 1611, Ju 135.7 is the ground-form of the ptcp. וְיׄלֶ֫דֶת (as in the same connexion in Gn 1719, Is 714), cf. §80d and the Qere שַׁבְתְּ, &c., discussed in §90n.

 [94g]  The forms which arise by appending the ת feminine to masculine nouns with a changeable vowel in a closed final syllable are, as a rule, developed exactly in the same way as masculine segholate forms. Thus there arise in Paradigm I (a) from גְּבַרְתְּ (for original gebirt; §69c), the form גְּבֶ֫רֶת mistress (but only in construct st.; in Is 477 also גְּבֶ֫רֶת עַד are to be taken together; the absolute st. is גְּבִירָה); from מְלַכְתְּ, מְלֶ֫כֶת queen (in Paradigm II, a); פְּחֶ֫תֶת (פְּ֫חַת = פַּ֫חַת pit) Lv 1355; (c) גָּדֵר wall, גְּדֶ֫רֶת (from גְּדַרְתְּ = gedirt; cf. זְקַן as construct st. of זָקֵן); on the other hand, חֲמֵ֫שֶׁת is construct st. of חֲמִשָּׁה five, with lengthening of the original ĭ of חֲמִשְׁתְּ.

 [94h]  Formations with a changeable ō in the second syllable belonging to this class are נְח֫שֶׁת bronze (from נְחֻשְׁתְּ), כְּתֹ֫נֶת the constr. st. of כֻּתֹּ֫נֶת coat, perhaps also כְּתֹ֫בֶת writing (unless it be obscured from כְּתָב, §93, Paradigm IV, c).—Paradigm III, (a) חֹתֶ֫מֶת (from חֹתַמְתְּ), masc. חוֹתָם seal; (b) יוֹנֶ֫קֶת (properly sucking) sprout (in pause, e.g. חֹבָ֫רֶת Ex 264, &c.), and so most feminines of participles קֹטֵל. On this transition of the ground-form qôṭilt to קֹטַלְתְּ (regularly before suffixes in יֽוֹנַקְתּוֹ, יֽׄלַדְתּוֹ, &c.), cf. §69c; qôṭalt serves as the ground-form under the influenee of a guttural as well as before suffixes, e.g. יׄדַ֫עַת, feminine of יׄדֵעַ knowing; in a wider sense, גֻּלְגּׄ֫לֶת skull may also be included here, see §95, Paradigm IV, c.

On the endings וּת and ־ִית, see §86k, l, §95 at the end.

§95. Paradigms of Feminine Nouns.

 [95a]  In accordance with the general formative laws, stated in §92bk, the following cases have chiefly to be considered in the flexion of