Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/331

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וּמֵ֖תִ is in closer logical connexion with what follows); 2 K 74 וָמַ֣הְנוּ שָׁ֔ם, וָמַ֑תָנוּ and וָמָֽתְנוּ; Ru 33 וָסַֹכְתְּ; ψ 1015 וָ֝רָֹע; 1 S 94 וָאַ֔יִן; 2 S 1326 וָלֹ֔א; Ez 479 וָחָ֔י; cf. also (with Ṭiphḥa) Gn 3313, 2 S 1512. The very frequent connexion of nouns expressing kindred ideas, by means of וָ, is due simply to considerations of rhythm, for even in such cases the Wāw must immediately precede the tone-syllable, which must be marked by a disjunctive accent, e.g. תֹּ֫הוּ וָבֹ֫הוּ Gn 12, יוֹם וָלַ֫יְלָה Gn 822 (see also the previous examples); Gn 1314 (thrice); Ex 253 זָהָב נָכֶ֫סֶף; ψ 967 כָּבוֹד וָעֹז; ψ 767 וְרֶ֫כֶב וָסוּס; Gn 713 וְשֵׁם־וְחָם וָיֶ֫פֶת; נֹחַ 1 K 2110 כֹּה וָכֹה ;אֱלֹהִים וָמֶ֑לֶךְ thus and thus; Est 18 אִישׁ־וָאִֽישׁ at the end of the verse, but in ψ 875 אִישׁ וְאִישׁ in spite of the Deḥi with the second אִישׁ, because it is closely connected with the following predicate. Also with three words פַּ֫חַד וָפַ֫חַת וָפָ֑ה Is 2417. On the other hand, the rapid pronunciation וְ occurs before a conjunctive accent (and, when farther removed from the principal pause, even with the smaller disjunctives, in spite of a following tone-syllable), e.g. צֹאן וְעֶ֣בֶד Gn 326; cf. Gn 3140, Lv 723, Dt 221, and among the examples given above, Gn 713 and ψ 767. (Exceptions: וָקֵ֥דְמָה Gn 1314, where evidently the וָ is intended to ensure the slow and solemn recitation of the promise, but also וָזִ֥יף Jos 1555, וָעֵ֣תֶר 197, וָבֶ֥טֶן 1925, all immediately before the pause.) For the same rhythmical reason וְ (not וָ) is used regularly with certain monosyllables which, by their nature, lean more closely upon the following word, thus וְזֶה, וְאֵת, וְגַם, וְלֹא (to be distinguished from וָלֹ֔א if not, with Zaqeph gadol, 2 K 517), and others.

§105. Interjections.

 [105a1. Among the interjections some (as in all languages) are simply natural sounds, or, as it were, vocal gestures, called forth involuntarily by certain impressions or sensations, e.g. אֲהָהּ (Ez 302 הָהּ), אָח ah! הֶאָח aha! (cf. this אָח also in אַחְלַי and אַֽחֲלֵי utinam!), אָֽנָּ֫א Ex 3231, &c. (Gn 5017 אָ֣נָּ֫א) ah! (from אָהּ and נָא), otherwise written אָֽנָּ֫ה 2 K 203, Jn 114, ψ 1164; also הַס (in pause הָס, even in the plural הַ֫סּוּ hold your peace! Neh 811) hush! הוֹי (Am 516 הוֹ־הוֹ) ha! woe! אוֹי, א֫וֹיָה (ψ 1205), אִי (in אִילוֹ Ec 410; אִי־לָךְ 1016) woe!

 [105b2. Others, however, originally expressed independent ideas, and become interjections only by rapid pronunciation and by usage, e.g. (הֵא) הֵן or הִנֵּה behold! (prop. here); רְאֵה behold! (prop. imperative); הָ֫בָה, plur. הָבוּ (prop. give, imperative of יָהַב; as to the tone, cf. §69o), come, the Latin age, agite! לְכָה (also לְךָ), לְכוּ (prop. go, imperative of הָלַךְ) with the same meaning[1]; חָלִ֫ילָה far be it! (prop. ad profanum!)

  1. רְאֵה (Dt 18), הָ֫בָה and לְכָה are also used in connexion with the feminine and the plural, which proves that they have become quite stereotyped as interjections.