Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/451

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 [131s]  6. In Dt 334 (מֽוֹרָשָׁה, perhaps מוֹר׳ לִקְהִלַּת is to be read), 33:27 (מְעֹנָה), Ju 78 (צֵדָה), the absolute state appears to be used instead of the construct to govern a following logical genitive; this, however, cannot be explained either as a special kind of apposition, or (with Hitzig) as a peculiarity of the dialect of Northern Palestine, but is merely a textual corruption. On the other hand, in Jb 3111 עָוֹן is evidently intended to combine the readings עֲוֹן פְּלִילִים and עָוֹן פְּלִילִי (as in verse 28).—The remarkable combination אֱלֹהִים צְבָאוֹת in ψ 808, 15 is due to the fact that in ψψ 42–83 אֱלֹהִים has almost throughout been subsequently substituted by some redactor for the divine name יחוה; on יהוה צְבָאוֹת cf. §125h. In ψ 596, 805, 20, and 84:9 יהוה has been reinstated in the text before אֱלֹהִים צְבָאוֹת.[1]

 [131t]  7. Lastly, the nearer definition (qualification) of a noun may be effected by means of a preposition (either with a suffix or with an independent noun), but must then be distinguished from the cases in which the preposition is dependent on a verb or verbal idea, e.g. Gn 36 and she gave also לְאִישָׁהּ עִמָּהּ unto her husband with her (= her husband who was with her); in Gn 916 (that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh) and other places, the qualification of the noun is itself also qualified.

§132. Connexion of the Substantive with the Adjective.[2]

 [132a1. The adjective (like the participle used adjectivally), which serves as an attribute of a substantive, stands after the substantive, and agrees with it in gender and number, e.g. אִישׁ גָּדוֹל a great man, אִשָּׁה יָפָה a beautiful woman. If the substantive is immediately connected with a genitive, the attribute follows the latter, since, according to § 89 and §128a, the construct state and the genitive belonging to it are inseparably united, e.g. Est 815 עֲטֶ֫רֶת זָהָב גְּדוֹלָה a great crown of gold.— On the attribute when attached to a determinate substantive, see above, §126u.

  1. Without this assumption it would be inconceivable that יהוה אֱלֹהֵי צְבָאוֹת should not have been written; that the anther of these Psalms regarded צְבָאֹוֹת already as an independent name of God (so Gesenius and Olshausen) is out of the question.
  2. On the expression of attributive ideas by substantives, cf. above, §127h, and §128o, with the note; §135n and §141c (substantives for adjectives as predicates of noun-clauses) and §152u (periphrases for negative qualities). On the use of the feminine of adjectives (and participles) to express abstract ideas, see §122q. It remains to mention further the employment (mostly only in poetry) of certain epithets in place of the substantives to which the quality in question belongs; e.g. אָבִיר the strong one, i.e. God; אַבִּיר the strong one, i.e. the bull (in Jer 816, &c., the horse); קַל swift=the runner (of the horse, Is 3016); לְבָנָה alba, i.e, luna; פֹּֽרִיָּה (fructifera) a fruitful tree, Is 176 (so פֹּרָת Gn 4922); רֹבֵץ a croucher, i.e. a crouching beast of prey, Gn 47. Cf. also רֹזֵן (gravis, augustus) and נָשִׂיא (elatus ?), i.e. a prince. The use of adjectives and participles for substantives is much more extensive in Arabic. In Greek and Latin poetical language cf. such examples as ὑγρή = the sea; merum for vinum, &c.