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Page:Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1910 Kautzsch-Cowley edition).djvu/524

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§162. Disjunctive Sentences.

 [162a]  The introduction of another possible case, excluding that which preceded, is effected by אוֹ or, e.g. Ex 2136, equivalent to the Latin vel; but also equivalent to aut with an exclusive antithesis, 2 K 216; so Is 275 אוֹ= it would then happen that, for which elsewhere אוֹ כִי.

 [162b]  In the sense of sive—sive we find אוֹאוֹ, or אִםאִם, or וְאִםאִם (see the examples in the Lexicon), also וְוְ Lv 53, Nu 914, Dt 247, Is 213 ff., Jer 3220, ψ 767, Jb 3429, perhaps also Ex 2116 (but not Pr 299; cf. Delitzsch on the passage), and לְלְ (see §143e); cf. also גַּםגַּם (in Gn 2444 וְגַםגַּם) both—and; but גַּם לֹאגַּם לֹא (in Gn 2126 וְגַם לֹאוְגַם לֹא; Zp 118 גַּם ... לֹאגַּם) neither—nor. On disjunctive questions, see §150g.

§163. Adversative and Exceptive Clauses.

 [163a1. After negative sentences (especially after prohibitions) the antithesis (but) is introduced by כִּי אִם, e.g. 1 S 819 and they said, Nay, but we will have a king over us; ψ 12, &c.; frequently also by כִּי alone, e.g. Gn 1815, 192, or even simply connected with וְ, Gn 175, וְהָיָה as perfect consecutive; 42:10; cf. Ex 518.

 [163b]  Rem. Sometimes the negation is only virtually contained in the preceding sentence, e.g. in the form of a rhetorical question (Mi 63 f.) or of conditions which are to be regarded as not having been fulfilled (Jb 3118); כִּי or כִּי אִם in such cases becomes equivalent to nay, rather.

 [163c2. Exceptive clauses, depending on another sentence, are introduced by אֶ֫פֶס כִּי except that, and (again after negative sentences, see a above) כִּי אִם[1] unless; especially כִּי אִם with the perfect (equivalent to unless previously) after imperfects which contain a declaration, e.g. Gn 3227 I will not let thee go, except thou hast previously blessed me; Lv 226, Is 5510, 656, Am 37, Ru 318. Finally, בִּלְתִּי אִם unless, Am 34 (with perfect after a rhetorical question), or simply בִּלְתִּי Gn 433 with a noun-clause, except your brother be with you; Is 104 after a rhetorical question, with a verbal-clause.

  1. Very probably this use of כִּי אִם arises from the original meaning for if, surely if (כִּי in an affirmative sense); so evidently in Ex 2222 as a forcible resumption of the preceding אִם. Thus, e.g. Ju 157 is simply surely when I have been avenged of you, after that I will cease, equivalent to, I will not cease, until I have, &c. When the exception follows, an ellipse must be assumed, e.g. Ru 318 surely (or for) when he has finished it (then the man will rest). It is far less natural to assume such an ellipse with כִּי אִם but (before entire clauses as before single nouns); see a above.