§68b–k), e.g. in מוּם for מְאוּם. As a rule in such cases, however, the א is orthographically retained, e.g. לִקְרַאת for לְקִרְאַת. Syncope occurs frequently in the case of ה, e.g. לַמֶּ֫לֶךְ for לְהַמֶּ֫לֶךְ (§23k and §35n), יַקְטִיל for יְהַקְטִיל (§53a).
[19l] (c) At the end of a word (apocope), e.g. גִּלֹה pr. name of a city (cf. גִּֽילֹנִי Gilonite); וַיַּרְא, where א though really rejected is orthographically retained, &c. On the apocope of ו and י in verbs ל״ה, see §24g, and §75a.
[19m] 4. To avoid harshness in pronunciation a helping sound, Aleph prosthetic with its vowel, is prefixed to some words, e.g. אֶזְרוֹעַ and זְרוֹעַ arm (cf. χθές, ἐχθές; spiritus, French esprit).—A prosthetic ע occurs probably in עַקְרָב scorpion; cf. Arab. ʿuṣfûr bird (stem ṣafara).
[19n] 5. Transposition occurs only seldom in the grammar, e.g. הִשְׁתַּמֵּר for הִתְשַׁמֵּר (§54b) for the sake of euphony; it is more frequent in the lexicon (כֶּ֫בֶשׂ and כֶּ֫שֶׂב lamb, שִׂמְלָה and שַׂלְמָה garment), but is mostly confined to sibilants and sonants.
[19o] 6. Softening occurs e.g. in כּוֹכָב star, from kaukabh=kawkabh for kabhkabh (cf. Syriac raurab=rabrab); טֽוֹטָפוֹת phylacteries for ṭaphṭāphôth; according to the common opinion, also in אִישׁ man from ʾinš, cf. however §96.
[20a] 1. The strengthening of a consonant, indicated by Dageš forte, is necessary and essential (Dageš necessarium)
(a) when the same consonant would be written twice in succession
- Frensdorff, Ochla Wʾochla, p. 97 f., gives a list of forty-eight words with quiescent א.
- This awkward term is at any rate as suitable as the name Alef protheticum proposed by Nestle, Marginalien u. Materialien, Tübingen, 1893, p. 67 ff.
- Cf. Barth, Etymologische Studien, Lpz. 1893, p. 1 ff.; Königsberger, in Zeitschrift f. wissenschaftliche Theologie, 1894, p. 451 ff.