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The Tragedy of Hamlet,

observed. The latter would give the compact binding force in honor. Nobles who signed binding agreements were wont to have their coats of arms added to their signatures.

I. i. 96. unimproved. Other conjectures are: 'not turned to account', 'untutored', 'undisciplined.'

I. i. 98. list. Literally, a special catalogue of the soldiers of a force; here used in the sense of an indiscriminately chosen crowd.

I. i. 99. For . . . diet. For no pay but their keep. (Moberly.) Perhaps, however, the meaning is 'as food and diet to keep the enterprise going.'

I. i. 100. stomach. I.e., gives an opportunity for courage. With a quibble on the literal meaning.

I. i. 117. As . . . blood. The abruptness of the transition in the sense has led some commentators to believe either (1) that there is a line missing, or (2) that II. 121–125 should be inserted between II. 116 and 117. Attempts have also been made to emend the text by adding a conjectural line.

I. i. 118. Disasters. In North's Plutarch, Julius Cæsar, whence Shakespeare drew his account of the strange omens preceding Caesar's assassination, the sun was said to be darkened.

I. i. 120. sick . . . doomsday. A reference to the Biblical account of the events to occur at the second coming of the Son of Man. Cf. Matthew 24. 29 and Revelation 6. 12.

I. i. 125. climatures. Possibly used for those who live under the same climate. (Clarendon.)

I. i. 127. cross. The usual interpretation has been to accept this as meaning crossing the spot where an apparition had appeared, and thus subjecting Horatio, according to traditional ghost-lore, to the spectre's malignant influence. This explanation is rejected by Onions, who gives the reading of the gloss.

I. i. 136. uphoarded. If while alive a person