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celebration of the opening of the Erie Canal". The "female weavers" struck with the men in Pawtucket, R. I. in 1824. In 1823 the New York City stone-cutters struck for $1.62+12 a day. This union also struck for higher wages in 1825. Journeymen Hatters in Philadelphia struck in 1825, "to establish a regular system of wages, to prevent one employer from underselling another." New York hatters organized in 1823.

Other strikes were called to resist wage cuts. In 1824, Buffalo Tailors, Philadelphia Ship Carpenters, the New York Journeymen House Painters struck for increased wages. In 1825 there were strikes of tailors, stone-cutters, stevedores and common laborers in New York; hand-loom weavers in Philadelphia, and cabinet makers in Baltimore and Philadelphia. In 1825 the bakers sought the abolition of Sunday work—a shortening of the weekly working time. New York City bakers led this fight.
63. Was there any new factor in those times?
Yes. Prison labor for the first time came into conflict with "free labor". In their effort to minimize the labor cost of production, the rising capitalist class sought to employ convict labor. This had an injurious effect upon a labor market which was just recovering from the effects of the panic. In 1823, the journeymen cabinet makers of New York held a mass meeting and petitioned the state legislature for redress from a practice which threatened "the ruin of . . . free mechanics." Adding, as a recommendation, that "convicts be employed in a state marble quarry."
64. Then it was not the principle of the employment of convict labor they objected to, but its effect upon their own trade?
Evidently. That employment in a marble quarry might have a bad effect upon the quarrymen did not concern them, as long as the cabinet making trade was given relief. The unskilled working strata have always furnished the dumping ground for all the gievances of the skilled workers. That is true even today.
65. What effect did these union activities have on the employers?
They became alarmed, and several prosecutions