ii s. XL MAR. 6, i9ia] NOTES AND QUERIES.
CLERICAL DIRECTORIES (11 S. xi. 109, l. r >8). A " new edition " of the ' Clerical Guide,' edited by Richard Gilbert, was published by Rivington printed by Gilbert & Rivingtoii in 1836. That the need of an annual list was felt is evident by an extract from an autograph letter before me written by Thomas Dudley Fosbroke, 21 Oct., 1829, to J. B. Nichols, the publisher :
" One of the books reviewed [by T. D. F.] suggests an idea, which deserves your considera- tion. An Army List and a Law List are both published with profit. Now there are returns made annually to the Privy Council of all the Incumbents and Curates throughout the realm. By a little interest with the officers of the Privy Council, and perhaps a trifling pecuniary bonus, you could publish annually a Clerical List of Incumbents and Curates, including the Stipen- diary, made out of these returns. It is not a work of labour. I merely throw out the hint because I think it might turn to good account. The Bishops and Clergy from obvious interest and utility would be sure to patronise it. Mr. Da vies Gilbert could, I think, easily obtain the access to the documents. The Bishops, I am sure, would facilitate the thing, if the Council refuse, and they can supply the documents from the Visitation Lists. Say nothing about it, for Rivington would grasp at it, at least I think so."
BARRING-OUT (11 S. viii. 370, 417, 473, 515 ; ix. 55 ; x. 258 ; xi. 32). To these references add ' Rattlin the Reefer ' (by Lieut. Edward Howard, R.N.), edited by Capt. Marryat, chap. xiv. et seq. The indicated date of the incident, which may be founded on fact, is about 1800. See chaps, xiv., xvi., pp. 49, 56 of Routledge's shilling edition. According to Allibone, the novel was first published in 1838.
An article entitled ' Rural Life,' &c., by James Bromley, Esq., which appeared in the Transactions of the Historic Society of Lan- cashire and Cheshire (1879-80, vol. xxxii.), gives on p. 133 an early reference to this custom. The entry is taken from the diary of Mr. Peter Walkden (1684-1769), a Non- conformist clergyman, whose cure was at Thornby, near Chipping, Yorks :
" When his son's schoolfellows ' barred out ' the schoolmaster he gave them 2d. to celebrate the event."
Mr. Bromley, in an explanatory note, adds :
- ' Barring - out. An ancient school custom
resorted to by the pupils before the holidays to stipulate for the discipline of the succeeding term."
The Handbook of Folk- Lore. By Charlotte Sophia* Burne. (Sidgwick & Jackson, 6s. net.)
WE accord a hearty welcome to this Handbook,, published under the auspices of the Folk-Lore Society. It is a revised and enlarged edition,, and the author in her Preface gives an account of the " complicated " genesis of the book. When; the original edition was published in 1890, its- scheme of classification was devised by Sir Laurence- Gomme. This has been retained, with only such modification as experience and extended know- ledge have shown to be desirable. Some years ago Mr. E. Sidney Hartland collected a quantity of material for a new edition which was not carried out, and he has generously placed the manuscript at the author's disposal ; in addition, " the whole- work has had the benefit of his wide range of r ading, and of his suggestions and advice."
The author explains that the subject is pre- sented in a popular form, and is adapted for persons residing in country places as well a* missionaries, travellers, or settlers whose lot i cast among half-civilized populations. " Such persons have it in their power to contribute very greatly to the advance of an important study, the value of which is as yet hardly appreciated ; and" it is believed they will be willing to do so, if only- the way is pointed out to them. To do this is* the aim of ' The Handbook of Folk-Lore.' " With a view to this, the Introduction contains sugges- tions to collectors, followed by a short list of accepted terms, practical hints as to the way to put questions to natives, and some types of Indo- European folk-tales.
The first part of the book treats of ' Belief and! Practice,' and the collector is advised howto begin his own studies so as to familiarize himself with the attitude of the folk and their methods of thinking- and reasoning. In the first chapter, ' The Earth and the Sky,' Sir Everard ini Thurn is quoted as : stating that " the Indians of Guiana believe thaft inanimate objects, such as plants, stones, and! rivers, are compounded of body and spirit, and not only many rocks, but also many waterfalls, streams, and indeed material bodies of every sort, are supposed to consist each of a body and spirit, as does a man." Although the idea of personality in rocks and stones does not present itself in so crude a form in Europe, " the belief that great standing-stones are transformed human beings is common. The circle known as the Hurlers in Cornwall is believed to be a party of Sabbath- breakers turned to stone."
The vegetable world is also, as we know, sur- rounded with superstition. The Malay believes that the cocoa-nut has eyes, and therefore will never fall on anybody's head. Drovers' sticks in England are often made of holly, because it has the useful property of bringing back runaway cattle if thrown after them. Houseleek is encouraged on roofs in France and Germany to- repel lightning ; sprigs of yew are hung from balconies in Spain with like intent ; and while we know many who will not allow hawthorn blossom to be brought into the house, as they suppose it to bring misfortune, yet pieces of it gathered on Ascension Day are used in some parts of England as a protection against lightning.