NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. XL APRIL 17, MS.
CROMWELL'S IRONSIDES : " LOBSTERS " = CUIRASSIERS (11 S. xi. 181, 257). MR. J. B. WILLIAMS asks for contemporary instances of the term " Ironsides." The following is nearly contemporary, if a reprint is to be trusted :
"As a valiant, faithfull Commander, brave Cromwell deserves perpetuall honour, who for his gallant actions, the Cavaliers have (Anabaptist- like) rebaptized him (if I may properly so say) and given him a new name, called Old Iron sides, and very well they might call him so, for often- times hee did prove to them as an iron rod to breake them in pieces." ' A Survey of Englands Champions,' by Josiah Ricraft, 1647, reprint about 1818-21, chap. xx. p. 101.
There are foot-notes in this reprint, which I suppose were added by some unnamed editor at the date thereof. In one of them, p. 67, chap, xiiii., " Upon the valiant and religious Sir William Waller," is the follow- ing :
" He was defeated at the battle of Lansdown' near Bath, and afterward totally routed at Round' way Down, near Devizes. Hence, with a little variation, it was called Runaivay Down, and continues to be called so to this day. Sir Arthur Hazlerig's cuirassiers, well known by the name of the lobsters, were among the fugitives. Cleve- land says, that they turned crabs, and went backwards."
Concerning " lobsters " before or at the battle of Lansdown, Laurence Echard in his ' History of England/ vol. ii., 1718, p. 418, writes :
" He [Sir William Waller] likewise receiv'd from London a fresh Regiment of five Hundred Horse, under the command of Sir Arthur Hazlerig, who were so compleatly arm'd, that they were call'd by the other Side, The Regiment of Lobsters, because of their bright Iron Shells, with which they were cover'd, being perfect Cuirassiers ; the first seen so arm'd on either Side, and the first who made any Impression upon the King's Horse, who being unarm'd were not able to bear a Shock with them ; and they were also secure from Hurts of the Sword, which were almost the only Weapons the other us'd."
The meaning of " lobster " as applied to r, soldier appears to have changed within about half a century of 1643. In 'A New Dictionary of the Terms Ancient and Modern of the Canting Crew,' by B. E. Gent, (circa 1690 ?), reprint,! find " Lobster, a Red Coat Soldier."
The following extract from Alfred Del- vau's ' Dictionnaire de la Langue Verte,' nouvelle Edition (1883), is perhaps worth quoting :
" Homard, S. M. Soldat de la ligne, dans 1'argot des faubouriens, qui, sans connaltre 1'anglais, imitent cependant les malfaiteurs de Londres appelant les soldats de leur pays lobsters, ft cause de la couleur rouge de leur uniforme."
Grose in his ' Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue,' third edition, 1796, gives the same interpretation.
In ' Slang. A Dictionary of the Turf/ &c., by Jon Bee, Esq. (i.e., John Badcock), 1823, we read :
" Lobster a soldier. By inversion a lobster is also called a soldier, when boiled, as is a red- herring."
I may mention that in French slang a red* herring is called a " gendarme."
Mr. Gardiner quotes his authority for his statement as regards the application to Cromwell by Rupert of the term " Iron- sides." It seems, therefore, with Rupert's known character, only natural to use the expression " soldierlike instinct." At any rate, it appears to me rather severe to call it a pure invention. As regards Mr. Gardiner's lack of authorities, would not MR. J. B. WILLIAMS have helped us if the numerous cases to which he refers, or, at any rate, some of them, had been quoted specifically? MR. WILLIAMS asks for a contemporary instance of the term " Ironside." I have understood this to mean contemporary with, say, Cromwell or the period. In a letter dated 15 June, 1645, that is, the day after the battle of Naseby, is an expression inti- mating that news had been taken to the Royalist camp on the 12th that " Ironsides was comming to joyne with the Parliaments Army." Cromwell was expected in the Parliament camp, and arrived there on the 13th. ERASDON.
THE RISE OF THE HOHENZOLLERNS (11 S. xi. 249). The historical sketch referred to was entitled ' The Hohenzollerns,' and appeared iri Harper's Monthly Magazine for April, 1884, pp. 689 to 705. It was written by Herbert Tuttle, and contains a genealogical tree from the first to the tenth Elector, and ton portraits.
ARCHIBALD SPARKE, F.R.S.L. [MB. ROLAND AUSTIN thanked for reply.]
THE ZANZIGS (US. xi. 249). The Zan- zigs (not Zancigs) appeared in London in 1907; but it was not until towards the end of their second engagement at the Alhambra that articles appeared in two- successive numbers of The Sketch, not only describing the performance, but giving the varied modus operandi. The articles were by an expert. Those in the press describing, the admirable skill of these clever performers were as is usual in the case of newspaper descriptions of conjuring tricks almost