Page:Notes and Queries - Series 11 - Volume 9.djvu/234

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NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. ix. MAR. 21, 1914.

of Edward III., of underwood in Northants " called Foxhole-chikke."

With this clue, perhaps some Anglo- Saxon scholar can tell us what the word really means. OLD SARTJM.


WE must request correspondents desiring in- formation on family matters of only private interest to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that answers may be sent to them direct.

" TRIFORIUM." This term of ecclesiastical architecture, like transept, appears to have originated in England, and for many cen- turies was known only in this country, and indeed only in reference to Canterbury Cathedral. Its first appearance is in the account of the conflagration (in 1174) and rebuilding of the cathedral, written in Latin by Gervase of Canterbury, a contemporary. Whence he got the word, or how he formed it, is unknown. It occurs next (so far as I know) in 1703 in N. Batteley's enlargement of Somner's ' Antiquities of Canterbury,' cited, of course, from Gervase. It does not seem to have been actually adopted in English use till the nineteenth century, the first example we have found being of 1815 ; but it is then used as a known term, and was probably in use before that date. Since 1835 it has been a common term of ecclesiastical architecture, and was explained in French in 1868, in the 'Diet, d' Architecture ' of Viollet-le-Duc, as a, term lately introduced by " les archeologues anglais." The origin of the word, in spite of a host of conjectures (many of which appeared first in vol. iv. of the Second Series of ' N. & Q. ' ), is quite unknown, the one thing certain being that from 1174 to 1800 it has been found only of Canter- bury, although it has now been extended (by modern English writers) to similar features of other cathedrals or churches, not only in England, but on the Continent. I do not ask readers of ' N. & Q.' to renew the wild- goose chase after its etymology, but shall be glad to know of any occurrence of the word between 1703 and 1815.

" BILLION," " TRILLION," &c. The names for the higher numbers above million appear to have been invented, or rather to have arisen, in Italy in the fifteenth century. According to the ' Century Dictionary,' they originated as common abbreviations of the fuller expressions due volte millioni, tre volte millioni, &c., up to died volte millioni (a decillion). No reference is given for these

statements, and we have not found the authority for them. Hatzfeld and Darme- steter do not even trace the French words to Italian, but treat them merely as French compounds of bi-, tri-, quadri-, &c., with the desinence of million. I do not know any work in which the matter is dealt with. I shall be glad if any reader of 'N. & Q/ can corroborate this account, or refer me to- any work in which the subject is treated. Oxford J. A. H. MURRAY.

HARVARD COLLEGE BROADSIDES. Some of the early broadsides issued by Harvard College are of distinct historical and biblio- graphical interest. Most of them are ex- tremely rare, and of some which undoubtedly existed no copies are at present known. The file in the Harvard Library, while more complete probably than any other, shows many gaps, and I am trying to locate copies of these early publications which are to be found outside of Cambridge (Mass.). Some unique examples have been discovered in English depositories, such as the State- Paper Office, and even in the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow, and it is to be hoped that others may be found elsewhere. I shal! be greatly obliged to any of your readers who have information in regard to where any of these papers may be found, if they will communicate with me. The broadsides for which I am searching are the following :

1. The " theses " presented at Commence- ment by the candidates for the Bachelor's degree. These are large sheets headed by an elaborate Latin dedication to the Gover- nor of the colony, and to the president and other officers of the College, with the names of the graduates of the year, and the theses they were prepared to defend. The earliest sheet known is for the year 1643, and the publication was continued down to 1810, probably without interruption, except for a few years when no public Commencement was held. Of many issued in the seventeenth century copies seem to be no longer extant. Between 1654 and 1707 only five years are represented, so far as I know.

2. Programmes of the Commencement Exercises, in English, to supplement the above, which were always in Latin. The earliest known to me is 1791, the latest 1810.

3. " Quaestiones Discutiendse," being the subjects presented by the candidates for the Master's degree. This Library has an almost complete set from 1653 to 1791.

4. Triennial Catalogue of Graduates (in Latin). The earliest known is of 1674, the last in broadside form 1773.