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Page:Notes and Queries - Series 12 - Volume 10.djvu/604

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498 NOTES AND QUERIES. ri*s.x.j24.i. ss . " DYARCHY " (12 S. x. 467). An example of this word thirty years earlier than that supplied at the above reference is quoted in the ' N.E.D.' The Dictionary describes " Dyarchy " as " Another spelling of ' Diarchy,' of less etymological authority," and gives instances from The Academy of Oct. 10, 1885, and The English Historical Review, i. 350 (1886). Under "Diarchy," the ' N.E.D.' has the following from Thirl- wall's 'History of Greece,' I. viii. 318, dated 1835 : A diarchy, though less usual than a monarchy, was not a very rare form of government. The form duarchy is much older. The ' N.E.D.' records examples of the dates 1586, 1655, and 1807. All the above varie- ties are found in the ' Century Dictionary ' ; and " diarchy " and " dyarchy " are recog- nized by Prof. Weekley in his ' Etymological Diet, of Mod. English' (1921). EDWARD BENSLY. University College, Aberystwyth. ' TWININGS IN THE STRAND ' (12 S. X. 480). I am exceedingly obliged and much gratified with the very kind notice of my little brochure at the above reference, but I observe your reviewer says : So long an existence, touching at more than one point the general commercial history of the nation, might even be thought worthy of a more extended account than our correspondent, Mr. Newton, gives it in this pleasant brochure. I am painfully aware of this, but had to confine myself within certain limits, and it was for this very reason that I chose the title, ' A Short Account of Twinings in the Strand,' which your courteous reviewer perhaps overlooked. I agree with him, however, that there cannot be many busi- nesses of over two hundred years old, occupy- ing the original site and directed by members of the family of the founder E. E. NEWTON. " Hampstead," Upminster, Essex. BYRON AND THE ROYAL SOCIETY (12 S. x. 430). According to the * Record of the Royal Society,' Lord Byron was elected a Fellow on Jan. 11, 1816. G. N. W. WADDON (12 S. x. 469). The "Mr. Macdonald of The Times " who lived at Waddon was, no doubt, Mr. John Cameron MacDonald, manager of the paper, who died about thirty-three years ago. B. B. AUTHORS WANTED (12 S. x. 432). 3. It was Emerson who wrote " Hitch your waggon to a star." The sentence occurs in ' Civilisation' the second of the essays bearing the joint title of ' Society and Solitude.' DAVID SALMON. Narberth. (12 S. x. 453.) The lines quoted incompletely by MR. J. T. WILLIAMS are : " From quiet homes and first beginning, Out to the undiscovered ends, There's nothing worth the wear of winning But laughter and the love of friends." They are part of the Dedicatory Ode prefixed to Mr. Belloc's ' Lambkin's Remains,' published at Oxford, 1900. B. B. J2otes on The English Village : The Origin and Decay of ite Community. An Anthropological Interpretation. By Harold Peake, F.S.A. 'Benn Brothers, Ltd. 15s. net.) THIS book is founded upon lectures delivered in Newbury in 1918, at the request of the Newbury Trades and Labour Council. The first eight chapters deal with the problem of the origin of the Village Community ; the next four chapters attempt to show that the evolution of the com- munity was a struggle between two racial ideals ; in the last portion of the volume the final struggles of the dying community are traced, and Mr. Peake inquires " what hope there may be for a revival of the community spirit in a form more in con- sonance with modern conditions." In a readable, compact form Mr. Peake utilizes the latest results of anthropological and archaeological investiga- tion ; the student and all interested in the subject will find gathered together here a mass of valuable material that otherwise they would have to look for in many directions. The illustrations and bibliography are useful. Mr. Peake ranges Europe for the benefit of his readers ; he goes back to the dim beginnings of things ; and he carries his learning lightly. In the first parts of the book he leans to the con- clusions of Gomme, Seebohm, Maitland, and Vinogradoff. In the final chapters he is the reformer. With the enclosure of the commons, village life was destroyed, in the sense in which it was known before the enclosure took place. On this question of enclosure Mr. Peake speaks with moderation and fairness ; he admits the advantages of the change whilst pointing out the other side. The development was inevitable ; but it brought ruin and suffering to many. He says : " The nineteenth century witnessed the lowest state of degradation that the village community in this country has passed through, but between 1890 and 1900 the tide seems to have turned. Though few changes were visible by 1914, the result of the period of the war seems to have been to arouse among the people, men and women alike, a greater sense of the need for association ; the effects of this upon village lite are becoming daily more marked, and perhaps, before long, we