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THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE BHAGAVAD-GITA

These four principles bear the same relationship to one another as do these four conditions or manifestations of Vach.

I shall now proceed to an examination of the principles that constitute the solar system itself. Here I find it useful to refer the explanations generally given with reference to Pranava and the meaning of its mantras. Pranava is intended to represent man and also the manifested cosmos, the four principles in the one corresponding to the four in the other. The four principles in the manifested cosmos may be enumerated in this order. First, Vaishwanara. Now this Vaishwanara is not to be looked upon as merely the manifested objective world, but as the one physical basis from which the whole objective world started into existence. Beyond this, and next to this, is what is called Hiranyagarbha. This again is not to be confounded with the astral world, but must be looked upon as the basis of the astral world, bearing the same relationship to the astral world as Vaishwanara bears to the objective world. Next to this there is what is now and then called Ishvara; but as this word is likely to mislead, I shall not call it Ishvara, but by another name, also sanctioned by usage--Sutratma. And beyond these three it is generally stated there is Parabrahmam. As regards this fourth principle differences of opinion have sprung up, and from these differences any amount of difficulty has arisen. For this principle, we ought to have, as we have