prisoner prevailed in the court; the Swiss churches, which on a similar occasion had decided against Calvin, were appealed to for advice, and the proceedings were postponed. It is pitiful to see how Calvin had set his heart on the condemnation of Servetus. He interfered with the course of justice by threatening the weakest among the judges, by stirring the feelings of his party in the council; he denounced and vilified his opponent from the pulpit in no measured terms, exposing his opinions in their most glaring and repulsive aspects; lie tampered with the ministers of the Swiss churches; he formulated new and more elaborate articles of accusation, and to these, besides his own, had the signatures of thirteen of his fellow-ministers appended—in one word, he left no stone unturned to wreak his revenge. He wanted Servetus's death! The arguments and authorities piled against him by Calvin were so many, and the proceedings became so intricate, that Servetus was forced to request that he might be furnished with books, and have pen, ink, and paper, supplied, in which to epitomize his defense. The jailer was directed to give him the books he wanted, and a single sheet of paper!
On this "famous" sheet, Servetus, after demonstrating that civil tribunals are incompetent to decide on questions bearing on religion only, and that heretics were either to be brought to reason by argument, or punished by banishment, and not by prison, concludes:
"Secondly, my lords, I entreat you to consider that I have committed no offense within your territory; neither, indeed, have I been guilty of any elsewhere: I have never been seditious, and am no disturber of the peace. During all the time I passed in Germany, I never spoke on such subjects" (his theological views), "save with Œcolampadius, Bucer, and Capito; neither in France did I ever enter on them with any one. I have always disavowed the opinions of the Anabaptists, seditious against the magistrate, and preaching community of goods. Wherefore, as I have been guilty of no sort of sedition, but have only brought up for discussion certain ancient doctrines of the Church, I think I ought not to be detained a prisoner, and made the subject of a criminal prosecution."In conclusion, my lords, inasmuch as I am a stranger, ignorant of the customs of this country, not knowing either how to speak or to comport myself in the circumstances under which I am placed, I humbly beseech you to assign me an advocate to speak for me in my defense."
If a shadow of justice had ruled the trial, this petition would have met with success; but the court took no notice of it. "Skilled in lying as he is," said the attorney-general, Calvin's tool, "there is no reason why he should now demand an advocate."
After the sitting of September 1st, in compliance with a wish previously expressed by the court, Calvin, surrounded by a staff of ministers, proceeded to the jail to visit the prisoner. Calvin having then opened upon him with a bigoted lecture, the consequences are easily imagined: the interview' ended as it could only end—with increased irritation on both sides. From this time (and we cannot but excuse the man), Servetus became more intemperate and aggressive on Cal-