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ant to the laws in force at the time of his authorization, or is hereafter authorized so to do," either by a license from the regents of the University of the State of New York, a diploma of an incorporated medical college within the State, or a diploma of a similar institution without the State, provided it be endorsed as approved by some proper medical faculty of the State. But every physician and surgeon, with the exception of practitioners of ten years' standing and a few others, must register in the office of the clerk of the county where he is practicing, or, if hereafter authorized, intends to practice, his name, residence, and place of birth, together with his authority to practice, to all of which he must subscribe. He must also make affidavit as to the manner of his license or authority, the date of the same and by whom granted, which, if willfully false, shall subject the affiant to conviction and punishment for perjury. Any one who violates either of these provisions or the one in regard to practicing, or who shall practice under cover of a diploma illegally obtained, shall be deemed to be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction shall be punished in a similar manner to that provided in 1874.

Such is the law at present in New York State. Much has been accomplished, but something yet remains to be done. There are weak points in the laws, noticeably the exemption from the operations of the act of 1880 of ten-year practitioners. While this may have been inserted to save reputable men from unnecessary trouble, does it not also leave a foothold for a disreputable class of an equally long standing? It is true, the law of 1874 is in force, declaring unlicensed practice to be a misdemeanor; but its inefficiency in meeting the evil necessitated the move of 1880.

The profession, however, is in a fair way to be purged of most that is foul in it. Perfection is not a mortal attainment. Let the community, then, be thankful for its present measure of protection. Against "quacks" our Legislatures are working. For malpractice the courts furnish redress.


OUR general ideas of its appearance, if we have never seen a volcano, differ considerably from what we find when actually brought in contact with one.

We always have the tendency to associate a mountain as the site of volcanic outbursts. Such is the case in general rule, though with many exceptions. In fact, the variations are so great that in many cases we should be inclined to attribute the extreme forms to totally